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Review on Analgesic activity using Tail Immersion Method


Affiliations
1 Department of B. Pharmacy, Yashoda Technical Campus, Satara – 415001 ., India
2 Department of B. Pharmacy, Yashoda Technical Campus, Satara – 415001., India
     

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An analgesic, or painkiller, is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia-relief from pain. Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems. They are distinct from anesthetics, which reversibly eliminate sensation, and include Ibuprofen, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs] such as the salicylates, and opioid drugs such as morphine and opium. In choosing analgesics, the severity and response to other medication determines the choice of agent; the World Health Organization [WHO] pain ladder specifies mild analgesics as its first step. Analgesia/Pain is ill-defined unpleasant sensation evoked by stimulus [external / internal] – the most important symptom giving warning signal and primarily protective in nature. Analgesia due to blockade of pain nerve sensitizing mechanism induced by bradykinin, TNFα, ILs. An analgesic is a drug that selectively relieves pain by acting in the CNS or on peripheral pain mechanisms, without significantly altering consciousness. Pain is a warning signal, primarily protective in nature, but causes discomfort and suffering; may even be unbearable and incapacitating. Excessive pain may produce other effects- sinking sensation, apprehension, sweating, nausea, palpitation, rise or fall in BP, tachypnoea. Analgesics relieve pain as symptoms, without affecting it’s causes.

Keywords

Administration timing, analgesic effect, Ibuprofen, inflammatory pain; non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, pain intensity.
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  • Review on Analgesic activity using Tail Immersion Method

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Authors

Snehal A
Department of B. Pharmacy, Yashoda Technical Campus, Satara – 415001 ., India
Rokade
Department of B. Pharmacy, Yashoda Technical Campus, Satara – 415001., India
Rupali. V. Jadhav
Department of B. Pharmacy, Yashoda Technical Campus, Satara – 415001., India

Abstract


An analgesic, or painkiller, is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia-relief from pain. Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems. They are distinct from anesthetics, which reversibly eliminate sensation, and include Ibuprofen, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs] such as the salicylates, and opioid drugs such as morphine and opium. In choosing analgesics, the severity and response to other medication determines the choice of agent; the World Health Organization [WHO] pain ladder specifies mild analgesics as its first step. Analgesia/Pain is ill-defined unpleasant sensation evoked by stimulus [external / internal] – the most important symptom giving warning signal and primarily protective in nature. Analgesia due to blockade of pain nerve sensitizing mechanism induced by bradykinin, TNFα, ILs. An analgesic is a drug that selectively relieves pain by acting in the CNS or on peripheral pain mechanisms, without significantly altering consciousness. Pain is a warning signal, primarily protective in nature, but causes discomfort and suffering; may even be unbearable and incapacitating. Excessive pain may produce other effects- sinking sensation, apprehension, sweating, nausea, palpitation, rise or fall in BP, tachypnoea. Analgesics relieve pain as symptoms, without affecting it’s causes.

Keywords


Administration timing, analgesic effect, Ibuprofen, inflammatory pain; non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, pain intensity.

References