Open Access Subscription Access
Agricultural Biotechnology and Crop Productivity: Macro-Level Evidences on Contribution of Bt Cotton in India
While farm-level empirical studies demonstrate the contribution of Bt technology in increasing crop productivity, there are still questions about its contribution to long-term growth in productivity at the macro-level. Our study examines major technological and seed policy breakthroughs relevant for the cotton crop, and reviews their impact on overall performance of the cotton sector and agricultural biotechnology industry in India. Using state-level panel data on cotton production from all the major cotton-producing zones, we provide empirical evidences on structural change in the cotton yield since the introduction of Bt technology and its impact on long-term growth in productivity at the national level.
Agricultural Biotechnology, Bt Cotton, Genetic Modification, Macro-Level Productivity.
- James, C., Global status of commercialized biotech/GM crops: 2013. ISAAA (International Service for Acquisition of Agribiotech Applications) Brief No. 46, Ithaca, New York, 2013.
- Pray, C., Ma, D., Huang, J. and Qiao, F, Impact of Bt cotton in China. World Dev., 2001, 29(5), 813–825.
- Qaim, M., The economics of genetically modified crops. Annu. Rev. Resour. Econ., 2009, 1, 665–693.
- Subramanian, A. and Qaim, M., The impact of Bt cotton on poor households in rural India. J. Dev. Stud., 2010, 46(2), 295–311.
- Union of Concerned Scientists, Failure to Yield: Evaluating the Performance of Genetically Engineered Crops, UCS Publications, Cambridge, 2009.
- Friends of the Earth, Who Benefits from GM Crops: An Industry Built on Myths, Friends of the Earth International, Amsterdam, 2011.
- Bagla, P., Negative reports on GM crops shake Government’s food agenda. Sci. News Anal., 2012, 337, 789.
- Kolady, D. E. and Herring, R., Regulation of genetically engineered crops in India: implications of policy paralysis for social welfare, competition and innovation. Can. J. Agric. Econ., 2014, doi: 10.1111/cjag.12055.
- DBT, Year-wise list of commercially released varieties of Bt cotton hybrids by GEAC (an electronic publication); http:// dbtbiosafety.nic.in (accessed on 28 January 2015).
- Qaim, M., Bt cotton in India: field trail results and economic projections. World Dev., 2003, 31(12), 2115–2127.
- Padaria, R. N., Singh, B., Padaria, J. C., Meena, M. S. and Pankaj, Farmer participatory assessment of Bt cotton and its socio-economic implications. Indian J. Ext. Educ., 2008, 44(1 & 2), 25–31.
- Subramanian, A. and Qaim, M., Village-wide effects of agricultural biotechnology: the case of Bt cotton in India. World Dev., 2009, 37(1), 256–267.
- Kouser, S. and Qaim, M., Impact of Bt cotton on pesticide poisoning in small holder agriculture – a panel data analysis. Ecol. Econ., 2011, 70(11), 2105–2113.
- Kiresur, V. R. and Ichangi, M., Socio-economic impact of Bt cotton – a case study of Karnataka. Agric. Econ. Res. Rev., 2011, 24(1), 67–81.
- Kathage, J. and Qaim, M., Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in India. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2012, 109(29), 11652–11656.
- Stone, G. D., Field verses farm in Warangal: Bt cotton, higher yields and larger questions. World Dev., 2011, 39(3), 387–398.
- Gruere, G. and Sengupta, D., Bt cotton adoption and farmer suicides in India: an evidence based assessment. J. Dev. Stud., 2011, 47(2), 316–337.
- Gutierrez, A. P., Ponti, L., Herren, H. R., Baumgartner, J. and Kenmore, P. E., Deconstructing Indian cotton: Weather, yields, and suicides. Environ. Sci. Eur., 2015, 27, 12; doi:10.1186/ s12302-015-0043-8.
- India Times, Farmer suicides complicated issue: formal finance key, 2105; http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2015-04-24/ news/61493845_1_rbi-governor-raghuram-rajan-agriculture-sectorloanwaiver.
- Sadanandan, A., Political economy of suicide: financial reforms, credit crunches and farmer suicides in India. J. Dev. Areas, 2014, 48(4), 287–307.
- James, C., Global status of commercialized biotech/GM crops: 2012. ISAAA Brief No. 44, Ithaca, New York, 2012.
- Murugkar, M., Ramaswami, B. and Shelar, M., Competition and monopoly in Indian cotton seed market. Econ. Polit. Wkly, 2007, XLII(37), 3781–3789.
- Biospectrum-ABLE, Biospectrum top 20: industry insights. A cyber media publication, 2013; http://www.ableindia.in/wp-content/ uploads/2014/03/11th-able-biospectrum-survey-june-2013.pdf
- Singh, N. B., Revolution in Indian cotton. Directorate of Cotton Development, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, Mumbai and National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi, 2009; http://www.ncipm.org.in/NCIPMPDFs/Revolution in Indian Cotton.pdf
- Kururganti, K., Bt cotton and the myth of enhanced yields. Econ. Polit. Wkly, 2009, 44(22), 29–33.
- Glover, D., Undying promise: agricultural biotechnology’s propoor narrative, ten years on. STEPS Working Paper No. 15, STEPS Centre, Brighton, 2009.
- Ramasundaram, P. and Vennila, S., A decade of Bt cotton experience in India: pointers for transgenics in pipeline. Curr. Sci., 2013, 104(6), 697–698.
- Pray, C. E. and Ramaswami, B., Liberalization’s impact on the Indian seed industry: competition, research, and impact on farmers. Int. Food Agribus. Manage. Rev., 2001, 2(3/4), 407–420.
- Kolady, D., Spielman, D. J. and Cavalieri, A. J., Intellectual property rights, private investment in research and productivity growth in Indian agriculture: a review of evidence and options. IFPRI discussion paper 01031, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, 2010.
- Pray, C. E. and Nagarajan, L., Innovation and research by private agribusiness in India. IFPRI discussion paper 01181, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, 2012.
- Pray, C. E., Bengali, P. and Ramaswami, B., The cost of biosafety regulations: the Indian experience. Q. J. Int. Agric., 2005, 44, 267–289.
- Lalitha, N., Pray, C. E. and Ramaswami, B., The limits of intellectual property rights: Lessons from the spread of illegal transgenic seeds in India. Discussion paper 08-06, Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi, 2008.
- Kranti, K. R., Bt Cotton: Questions and Answers, Indian Society for Cotton Improvement, Mumbai, 2012.
- Herring, R. J., Reconstructing facts in Bt cotton: why scepticism fails. Econ. Polit. Wkly, 2013, XLVIII(33), 63–66.
- Kranti, K. R., Cotton production systems – need for a change in India. Cotton Stat. News, 16 December 2014, pp. 4–7.
- Greene, W. H., Econometric Analysis, Pearson Education Inc, Delhi, 2008, 5th edn.
- Harvest Choice, Rainfall variability and crop yield potential. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC and University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN, 2010; http://harvestchoice. org/node/2240
Abstract Views: 747
PDF Views: 37