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Occupational Hazard as a Risk Factor for Azoospermia among Infertile Men .
Objectives: Exposure to environmental contaminants is a major risk factor for overall human health, including fertility. There has been increasing evidence of association of male infertility with occupational hazards such as heat, chemicals, and radiation. This study aimed to evaluate if certain job engagements and the environment have an impact on seminal characteristics of infertile men. Methods: 327 infertile men engaged in different occupations were divided into two groups: Group 1, who had a high likelihood of being exposed to occupational hazards; and Group 2, whose occupations had less or no hazardous working environment. Semen analysis was performed and the accessory gland function was also evaluated. Results: The farmers outnumbered those from other occupations (102/327). We observed a significantly higher incidence of azoospermia cases (16/39) among factory workers and a two-fold higher odds ratio in Group 1 (OR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.184, 0.41) compared to Group 2 (OR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.083, 0.239). Differences in semen parameters such as semen volume, pH, total sperm count, and sperm of normal morphology between the two groups were found to be statistically significant. Construction workers recorded the lowest semen volume and the highest seminal pH, while police personnel and factory workers had the least total sperm count and sperm with normal morphology. Conclusions: This study indicates an association of certain occupations with male infertility. Therefore, it is recommended to take precautionary measures to minimize exposure to workplace-related environmental hazards.
Azoospermia, Male Infertility, Occupational Hazards, Semen Parameter, Total Fertility Rate
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