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Performance Study on 5G - NSA Backhaul Network Secured with HIP
Fifth generation Non-Stand Alone (5G-NSA) mode offers users an earlier 5G experience before worldwide Stand Alone 5G implementation (5G-SA). In 5G-NSA, operators utilize the existing fourth-generation (4G) networks to provide pre-5G services. In some 5G-NSA deployments, the 4G backhaul network connects the 5G core (5GC) or 4G evolved packet core (EPC) to the 5G new radio (5G NR) network. Nevertheless, implementing security in all network segments is essential to assure end-to-end security in 5G-NSA implementations. Operators must use Internet Protocol security (IPsec) to secure user plane transmissions through 4G backhaul. Host Identity Protocol (HIP) is an alternative method to implement IPsec without disturbing radio or core network protocols to provide node authentication, data encryption with integrity protection, and replay protection to the user plane. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the secure HIP-4G backhaul network to assure end-to-end security in 5G-NSA. According to the results, HIP implementation does not delay message transmissions. Only a slight delay occurs at the security session establishment phase in the HIP Base Exchange process. Hence the HIP implemented 4G backhaul is appropriate to assure end-to-end security in 5G-NSA until the 5G-SA internetworking solutions are implemented.
5G, 5G-NSA, 4G-LTE, Backhaul Network Security, Host Identity Protocol.
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