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Monkeypox : Transmission, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention


Affiliations
1 General Medicine, TNMC & Nair Hospital, Mumbai, India
2 Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
     

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Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that is caused by the Monkeypox virus (MPX). MPX is similar to the virus that causes smallpox. It was endemic to central and west regions of Africa but has recently been reported in different parts of the globe. The primary reservoirs of MPX are wild animals particularly primates (Mangabey monkeys), Gambian pouched rats, and squirrels. Most cases of Monkeypox are due to the transmission of the virus from animals to humans. In addition, there have also been instances of human-to-human spread through respiratory droplets, fomites, and sexual contact. Monkeypox has a varied presentation ranging from mild symptoms to severe disabling complications. Real time PCR is used to diagnose orthopoxvirus. Retrospective diagnosis is done using serological tests. Symptomatic management and prevention of secondary infection are the mainstay aim of treatment. Antiviral drugs like cidofovir, brincidofovir, and tecovirimat seem to work against MPX even though there is no specific treatment against the virus. Health education of masses, prophylactic vaccination, quarantining the exposed, appropriate personal protective equipment for health care workers, etc. is some of the preventive measures to curb the disease. The newer-generation smallpox vaccine, JYNNEOS and the older-generation ACAM20, can also be used for prevention of Monkeypox.

Keywords

Monkeypox Virus, Smallpox, Orthopoxvirus, Skin Lesions, Antiviral Medications, Ring Vaccination.
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  • Monkeypox : Transmission, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

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Authors

Charmi Bhanushali
General Medicine, TNMC & Nair Hospital, Mumbai, India
Vidhi Bhanushali
Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

Abstract


Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that is caused by the Monkeypox virus (MPX). MPX is similar to the virus that causes smallpox. It was endemic to central and west regions of Africa but has recently been reported in different parts of the globe. The primary reservoirs of MPX are wild animals particularly primates (Mangabey monkeys), Gambian pouched rats, and squirrels. Most cases of Monkeypox are due to the transmission of the virus from animals to humans. In addition, there have also been instances of human-to-human spread through respiratory droplets, fomites, and sexual contact. Monkeypox has a varied presentation ranging from mild symptoms to severe disabling complications. Real time PCR is used to diagnose orthopoxvirus. Retrospective diagnosis is done using serological tests. Symptomatic management and prevention of secondary infection are the mainstay aim of treatment. Antiviral drugs like cidofovir, brincidofovir, and tecovirimat seem to work against MPX even though there is no specific treatment against the virus. Health education of masses, prophylactic vaccination, quarantining the exposed, appropriate personal protective equipment for health care workers, etc. is some of the preventive measures to curb the disease. The newer-generation smallpox vaccine, JYNNEOS and the older-generation ACAM20, can also be used for prevention of Monkeypox.

Keywords


Monkeypox Virus, Smallpox, Orthopoxvirus, Skin Lesions, Antiviral Medications, Ring Vaccination.

References