Open Access Subscription Access
Open Access Subscription Access
Relationship Between Covid Anxiety and Covid Disbelief: Do Women Fare Better than Men?
Knowing the relationship between Covid-anxiety and Covid-disbelief was felt significant in the context of people's (in particular youths') non-compliance to the Covid-19 Pandemic restrictions. The study involved 137 (females=107, males=30) college students who filled 'Corona virus anxiety scale' and 'Covid-19 disbelief scale' through Google form. The correlation found between Covid-anxiety and Covid-disbelief was moderate positive. However, it was significant in males but not in females. Next, corona virus anxiety can explain 17% of variance in Corona-disbelief in males. Thus, Covid-anxiety appears to create an unhealthy reaction of Covid-disbelief in men but not in women. Various studies supporting the above findings are discussed. Further Covid-disbelief in men in response to Covid-anxiety is explained in terms of 'Covid-disbelief' as a defense mechanism,'Covid-disbelief as reinforcer', 'men's tendency of using expressive suppression', and 'toxic masculinity'. The implications are discussed in detail.
Covid-anxiety, Covid-disbelief, college students, gender.
- Bok, S., Martin, D. E., & Lee, M. (2021). Validation of the COVID-19 Disbelief Scale: Conditional indirect effects of religiosity and COVID-19 fear on intent to vaccinate. Acta Psychologica, 219, 103382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2021.103382
- Canadian Mental Health Association (2022). Covid-19 and anxiety, BC division. Https://heretohelp.bc.cainfosheet/covid-19-and-anxiety.
- Frackowiak-Sochanska, M. (2021). Men & social trauma of Covid-19 pandemic: The maladaptiveness of toxic masculinity. Society Register, 5(1), 73-94.
- Gottert, A., Shattuck, D., Pulerwitz, J., & Betron, M. (2022), Meeting men's mental health needs during COVID-19 and beyond: a global health imperative. BMJ Global Health, 7(4), e008297. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2021-008297
- Gottman, J. M., & Levenson, R. W. (1999). Dysfunctional marital conflict: Women are being unfairly blamed. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 31(3-4), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1300/J087v31n03_01.
- Huang, Y., & Zhao, N. (2020). Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 outbreak in China: A web based cross-sectional survey Psychiatry Research, 288, 112954. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.202 0.112954
- Kleitman, I. S., Fullerton, D.J., Zhang, L.M., Blanchard, M.D., Lee, J., Stankov, L., & Thompson, V. (2021). To comply or not comply? A latent profile analysis of behaviours and attitudes during the COVID-19pandemic. PloS One, 16(7), e0255268. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0255268.
- Kring, A. M., & Gordon, A. H. (1998). Sex differences in emotion: Expression, experience, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(3), 686-703. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.526.
- Lee, S.A. (2020). Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: A brief mental health screener for COVID-19 related anxiety. Death Studies, 44(7), 393-401, https://doi.org/10.1 080/07481187.2020.1748481.
- O'Hara, L., Rahim, H.A., & Shi, Z. (2020). Gender and trust in government modify the association between mental health and stringency of public health measures to reduce COVID-19, Population Health and Wellness, 290, 364–377. https://qspace.qu.edu.qa/handle/10576/16506.
- O'Shea, B.A., & Ueda, M. (2021). Who is more likely to ignore experts' advice related to COVID-19? Preventive Medicine Reports, 23, 101470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. Pmedr.2021.101470.
- Rana, I. A., Bhatti, S. S., Aslam, A. B., Jamshed, A., Ahmad, J., & Shah, A. A. (2021). COVID-19 risk perception and coping mechanisms: Does gender make a difference? International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction: IJDRR, 55, 102096. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102096
- Reznik, A., Gritsenko, V., Konstantinov, V., Khamenka, N., & Isralowitz, R. (2020). COVID-19 fear in Eastern Europe: Validation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 19(5), 1903-1908. doi: 10.1007/s1146902000283-3.
- Richards, J.M., & Gross, J.J. (2000). Emotion regulation and memory: The cognitive costs of keeping one's cool. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(3), 410-424. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037// 0022- 35184.108.40.2060.
- Rodríguez-Hidalgo, A., Pantaleón, Y., Dios, I., & Falla, D. (2020). Fear of COVID-19, stress and anxiety in university undergraduate students: A predictive model for depression. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 591797. https://doi.org/10.3389/fps yg.2020.591797.
- Salari, N., Hosseinian-Far, A., Jalali, R., Vaisi-Raygani, A., Rasoulpoor, S., Mohammadi, M., Rasoulpoor, S., & Khaledi-Paveh, B. (2020). Prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Global Health, 16(1), 57. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-020-00589-w.
- Santana, M., Zatti, C., Spader, M., Malgarim, B., Salle, E., Piltcher, R., Ceresér, K., Bastos, A., & Freitas, L. (2017). Acute stress disorder and defense mechanisms: A study of physical trauma patients admitted to an emergency hospital. Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 39(4), 247-252. Https://doi.org/10.1590/2237-6089- 2016-0071
- Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C.S., & Ho, R.C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1729. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051729
- Whitemore, M. (2020). In article 'pandemic denial: Why some people can't accept Covid-19's realities' by Marples, M. https://edition.cnn.com/2020/08/16/heal th/pandemic-covid-19-mental-health-wellness/index.html.
- Zhang, Y., & Ma, Z.F. (2020). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and quality of life among local residents in Liaoning Province, China: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7), 2381. https://doi.org/10.3390//ijerph17072381.
Abstract Views: 75
PDF Views: 0