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Development in Curriculum: After Independence
Before 1947, the educational system in India was often years consisting of middle and high schools. Subjects taught were English, Vernacular languages, Mathematics, History, Geography and Science. After Independence the educational system of the country was critically examined by the University Education Commission 1948 and the Secondary Education Commission (1953) to fmd the weaknesses of secondary education system. The Commissions found the curriculum bookish, and examination- centred with an over-emphasis on memorizing by learner. The Education Commission (1964-66) recommended a uniform pattern of education comprising five years of primary education, eight years of elementary education (including primary and upper primary stage), two years of secondary education followed by two years of higher secondary education. Science and mathematics were made compulsory upto grade ten. From time to time, the national government formulates the National Policy on Education. Using as its foundation the NPEs of 1968 and 1986, two curriculum initiatives have been launched by NCERT: (a) The Curriculum for the Ten-Year Schoola framework (1975); and (b) The National Curriculum for Elementary and Secondary Educationa framework (1988). In the year 2000, NCERT brought out a National Curriculum Framework for School Education. Following the basic tenet of curriculum planning, it was monitored, reviewed and revised appropriately and thus was developed National Curriculum Framework2005. An important development since the National Policy on Education was formulated in 1986 has been the acceptance across the country of a common structure of education and the introduction by most states of the 10+2+3 system. There are eight years of elementary education (five years of primary school and three years of upper primary/ middle schooling) and four years of secondary education (two years of general secondary and two years of higher secondary).
Curriculum, Development, School
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