Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Palm Oil Sludge Biodiesel Production and Optimization using Box Behnken Design


Affiliations
1 Department of Biotechnology, Sir M Visvesvaraya Institute of Technology, Bangalore-562157, India
2 Department of Chemical Engineering, MSRIT, Bangalore-560054, India

   Subscribe/Renew Journal


Palm Oil Sludge (POS) was used to make biodiesel with HCl as an acidic catalyst along with methanol, followed by a transesterification reaction. The high Free Fatty Acid (FFA) content was reduced from 18.96% to 1.4% in the POS using 5% wt. of HCl, 7.5:1 molar ratio of Methanol to Palm Oil Sludge (POS) waste, 60 min stirrer and 400 rpm. The effect of reaction duration was also studied and found that 97.53% of FFA removal was achieved at 90 min of esterification process. The transesterification reaction yielded 94.66% biodiesel at catalyst loading 0.25%wt of NaOH for a reaction duration of 60min, at 60°C and 400 RPM. The properties of biodiesel produced was analyzed as per IS 1448 standards and was found comparable to ASTM D6751 petroleum diesel standards and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. This study also involves the optimization of process parameters for the removal of excess FFA using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Box- Behnken Design (BBD).

Keywords

Palm oil Sludge (POS), Box-Behnken Design (BBD), Response Surface Methodology (RSM).
User
Subscription Login to verify subscription
Notifications
Font Size

  • Ahmed Y, Yaakob Z, Akhtar P, Sopian K. (2015): Production of biogas and performance evaluation of existing treatment processes in palm oil mill effluent (POME). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2015 Feb 1;42:1260-78. (https:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/ S1364032114008983)
  • Ambat I, Srivastava V, Sillanpää M. (2018): Recent advancement in biodiesel production methodologies using various feedstock: A review. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews. 2018 Jul 1;90:356-69. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/ S1364032118301588)
  • Bashir MA, Thiri M, Yang X, Yang Y, Safdar AM. (2018): Purification of biodiesel via pre-washing of transesterified waste oil to produce less contaminated wastewater. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2018 Apr 10;180:466-71. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article/abs/pii/S0959652618301483)
  • Feng Y, Qiu T, Yang J, Li L, Wang X, Wang H. (2017): Transesterification of palm oil to biodiesel using Brønsted acidic ionic liquid as high-efficient and ecofriendly catalyst. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2017 Sep 1;25(9):1222-9. (https:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/ S1004954117300575)
  • Hayyan A, Rashid SN, Hayyan M, Zulkifliy MY, Hashim MA, Osman NA. (2017): Synthesis of novel eutectic catalyst for the esterification of crude palm oil mixed with sludge palm oil. J. Oil Palm Res. 2017 Sep 1;29:373-9. (http://jopr.mpob.gov.my/wp-content/ uploads/2017/09/joprv29sept17-adeeb.pdf)
  • Kiran RS, Madhu GM, Satyanarayana SV, Kalpana P, Rangaiah GS. (2017): Applications of Box–Behnken experimental design coupled with artificial neural networks for biosorption of low concentrations of cadmium using Spirulina (Arthrospira) spp. Resource- Efficient Technologies. 2017 Mar 1;3(1):113-23. (https:/ /www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S2405653716300914)
  • Knothe G, Razon LF. (2017): Biodiesel fuels. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 2017 Jan 1;58:36- 59. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0360128516300284)
  • Matinja AI, Zain NA, Suhaimi MS, Alhassan AJ. (2019): Optimization of biodiesel production from palm oil mill effluent using lipase immobilized in PVAalginate- sulfate beads. Renewable Energy. 2019 May 1; 135:1178-85. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/ science/article/pii/S096014811831526X)
  • Muthukumaran C, Praniesh R, Navamani P, Swathi R, Sharmila G, Kumar NM. (2017): Process optimization and kinetic modelling of biodiesel production using non-edible Madhuca indica oil. Fuel. 2017 May 1;195:217-25. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article/abs/pii/S0016236117300704)
  • Michael AT, Moses OE. Effect of Factor Interaction in Esterification of High FFA Oil. International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. June 2015;4(6); 257-265. (http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/ download?doi=10.1.1.870.980&rep=rep1&type=pdf)
  • Nongbe MC, Ekou T, Ekou L, Yao KB, Le Grognec E, Felpin FX. (2017): Biodiesel production from palm oil using sulfonated graphene catalyst. Renewable Energy. 2017 Jun 1; 106:135-41. (https:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0960148117300241)
  • Rashid SN, Hayyan A, Hashim MA. (2017): Production of fatty acid methyl ester from low grade palm oil using eutectic solvent based on benzyltrimethylammonium chloride. InIOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 2017 Jun 1 (Vol. 210, No. 1, p. 012012). IOP Publishing. (https://iopscience.iop.org/article/ 10.1088/1757-899X/210/1/012012/meta)
  • Sadasivam A. Manickam, (1996): A text book of biochemical methods, New Age International publisher, 22-28. 14. Srikanth HV, Venkatesh J, Godiganur S. (2021): Box- Behnken response surface methodology for optimization of process parameters for dairy washed milk scum biodiesel production. Biofuels. 2021 Jan 2;12(1):113-23. (https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/ 10.1080/17597269.2018.1461511)
  • Suwanno S, Rakkan T, Yunu T, Paichid N, Kimtun P, Prasertsan P, Sangkharak K. (2017): The production of biodiesel using residual oil from palm oil mill effluent and crude lipase from oil palm fruit as an alternative substrate and catalyst. Fuel. 2017 May 1;195:82-7. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/ S0016236117300595)
  • Thangalazhy-Gopakumar S, Al-Nadheri WM, Jegarajan D, Sahu JN, Mubarak NM, Nizamuddin S. (2015): Utilization of palm oil sludge through pyrolysis for bio-oil and bio-char production. Bioresource technology. 2015 Feb 1;178:65-9. (https:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/ S0960852414013273)
  • Thinagaran L, Sudesh K. (2019 ): Evaluation of sludge palm oil as feedstock and development of efficient method for its utilization to produce polyhydroxyalkanoate. Waste and biomass valorization. 2019 Mar;10(3):709-20. (https:// link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12649-017-0078-8)
  • Xu H, Miao X, Wu Q. (2006): High quality biodiesel production from a microalga Chlorella protothecoides by heterotrophic growth in fermenters. Journal of biotechnology. 2006 Dec 1;126(4):499-507. (https:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/ S0168165606003853)
  • Zahan KA, Kano M. (2018): Biodiesel production from palm oil, its by-products, and mill effluent: A review. Energies. 2018 Aug 16;11(8): 2132. (https:// www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/11/8/2132)
  • Zubir M. (2019): Conversion of Methyl ester fatty acid from rice bran oil into fuel fraction via hydrocracking reaction over zeolite catalyst supported of ni, co and mo metals. RASÂYAN Journal of Chemistry [RJC]. 2019;12(1):205-13. (http://digilib.unimed.ac.id/38517/)

Abstract Views: 46

PDF Views: 0




  • Palm Oil Sludge Biodiesel Production and Optimization using Box Behnken Design

Abstract Views: 46  |  PDF Views: 0

Authors

Manjunath. R
Department of Biotechnology, Sir M Visvesvaraya Institute of Technology, Bangalore-562157, India
Archna Narula
Department of Chemical Engineering, MSRIT, Bangalore-560054, India
Siva Kiran RR
Department of Chemical Engineering, MSRIT, Bangalore-560054, India

Abstract


Palm Oil Sludge (POS) was used to make biodiesel with HCl as an acidic catalyst along with methanol, followed by a transesterification reaction. The high Free Fatty Acid (FFA) content was reduced from 18.96% to 1.4% in the POS using 5% wt. of HCl, 7.5:1 molar ratio of Methanol to Palm Oil Sludge (POS) waste, 60 min stirrer and 400 rpm. The effect of reaction duration was also studied and found that 97.53% of FFA removal was achieved at 90 min of esterification process. The transesterification reaction yielded 94.66% biodiesel at catalyst loading 0.25%wt of NaOH for a reaction duration of 60min, at 60°C and 400 RPM. The properties of biodiesel produced was analyzed as per IS 1448 standards and was found comparable to ASTM D6751 petroleum diesel standards and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. This study also involves the optimization of process parameters for the removal of excess FFA using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Box- Behnken Design (BBD).

Keywords


Palm oil Sludge (POS), Box-Behnken Design (BBD), Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

References





DOI: https://doi.org/10.18311/jmmf%2F2023%2F32047