Open Access Subscription Access
Traditional Unani and Contemporary Outlook of Filfil daraz (Piper longum L.) – A Comprehensive Review
The spectacular thrust and inquisitiveness of the present-day world have resulted in an incredible scientific approach regarding herbal medicine potential. The importance of herbal medicine has witnessed a tremendous expansion because of its significant effective and safe medications, especially in chronic and long-standing ailments. Filfil daraz (Piper longum L.) or long pepper, is a herb with enormous therapeutic benefits. Its beneficial actions are Hāḍim (digestive), Muqawwī-i-Miʻda (stomachic), and Kāsir-i- Riyāḥ (carminative). Since ages, Unani physicians used this herb for several disorders like Balghamī khansi (Phlegmatic cough), Fālij (Paralysis), Laqwa (Facial palsy), Mirgi (Epilepsy), Niqris (Gout), ‘Irq al-Nasā (Sciatica), and Qūlanj (Colitis) etc. Literature survey revealed countless important phytoconstituents namely alkaloids such as piperine, volatile oil, esters and resins. Moreover, many plant parts have shown distinct activities like analgesic, anti-microbial, anti-fungal, immunomodulatory activities in quite a lot of in-vivo and in-vitro studies. The present review delivers a comprehensive description of Piper longum L., its ethnobotanical uses, and recent scientific studies. New research avenues are open for future research endeavours for phytochemical studies and preclinical and clinical trials to explore its medicinal importance.
Piper longum L., Filfil daraz, Phytoconstituents, Unani.
- Evans WC. Trease and Evans, Elsevier's limited, 16th Ed; 2009. p. 3, 27, 75.
- Bhattacharjee SK, De LC. Medicinal herbs and flowers, Avishkar Publishers, Distributors, Jaipur, India; 2005. p. 12–14.
- Kar A. Pharmacognosy and pharmacobiotechnology. New Age International, 2nd Edition; 2007. p. 5.
- Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal plants, Oriental Enterprises, 2nd Ed, Vol. 7; 2012. p. 2268– 70, 2936–38.
- Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy, Nirali Prakashan, 53rd Ed; 2017. p. 14.54–5.
- Anonymous. Quality standards of Indian medicinal plants, Medicinal Plants Unit. Indian Council of Medical Research. 2003; 1:168–70,72.
- Anonymous. The wealth of India. National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, CSIR. 2005; 8:Ph.–Re:96–9.
- Anonymous. Quality standards of Indian medicinal plants. Medicinal Plants Unit; Indian Council of Medical Research. 2012; 10:168,352–62.
- Anonymous. The wealth of India, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources. 2012; 5:R-Z:98,165.
- Anonymous. Medicinal plants in folklores of Northern India, New Delhi. Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, Ministry of AYUSH; 2006. p. 386.
- Nadkarni KM. Indian materia medica, Vol 1. Popular Prakashan Private Limited; 2010, p. 965,969–72.
- Kabeeruddin M, Makhzan-ul-Mufradat, Idara Kitabus- Shifa; 2007. p. 58–63,66–7,145–6,178–9,382–4, 539.
- Ghani N. Khazain-ul-Advia, Idara Kitab-us-Shifa, Delhi, Vol. 1–4; n.d. p. 203–5, 495–6,1027–8, 1231–3.
- Qasmi IA, Kitab-ul-Mufradat, Idara Aligarh Al-hikma foundation; n.d. p. 170.
- Baitar I. Al Jame-al-mufradat-al-advia-al-Aghzia. Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine. 1999; 3:381–2.
- Choudhary N, Singh V. A census of P. longum's phytochemicals and their network pharmacological evaluation for identifying novel drug-like molecules against various diseases, with a special focus on neurological disorders. PLoS One. 2018; 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191006. PMid:29320554. PMCid:PMC5761900
- Khare CP. Indian medicinal plants. An illustrated dictionary. Springers; 2007. p. 492. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-70638-2. PMCid:PMC2705749
- Lavekar GS, Database on medicinal plants. CCRAS. 2008; 2,5.
- Nigam SS, Rao CS. Antimicrobial activity of some Indian essential oils. Indian Drugs. 1976; 14:62–5.
- Sawangjaroen N, Sawangjaroen K, Poonpanang P. Antiamoebic effects of Piper longum fruit, Piper sarmentosum ischolar_main, and Quercus infectoria nutgall on caecal amoebiasis in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004; 91(2–3):357–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jep.2004.01.014. PMid:15120461
- Lokhande PD, Gawai KR, Kodam KM, Kuchekar BS, Chabukswar AR, Jagdale SC. Antibacterial activity of some alkaloids, PharmacolToxicol. 2007; 2(6):574–9.
- Dhanukar SA, Karandikar SM, Desai M. Efficacy of Piper longum in childhood asthma. Indian Drugs. 1984; 2(19):384–8.
- Manoharan S, Silvan S, Vasudevan K, Balakrishnan S. Antihyperglycemic and anti-lipid peroxidative effects of Piper longum, dried fruits in alloxan induced diabetic rat. J Biol Sci. 2007; 7(1):161–8. https://doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2007.161.168
- Wu E, Bao Z. Effects of the unsaponifiable matter of Piper longum oil on cholesterol biosynthesis in experimental hypercholesterolaemic mice. Honggacayano. 1992; 23(4):197–200.
- Barua CC, Singh A, Sen S, Barua AG, Barua IC. In vitro antioxidant and antimycobacterial activity of seeds of Piper longum Linn: A comparative Study. SAJ Pharm Pharmacol. 2014; 1:1–11. https://doi.org/10.18875/2375-2262.1.101
- Vedhanayaki G, Shastri GV, Kuruvilla A. Analgesic activity of Piper longum Linn. Root. Indian J ExpBiol. 2003; 41(6):649–51.
- Sharma AK, Singh RH. Screening of antiinflammatory of certain indigenous drugs on carrageen induced hind paw oedema in rats. Bull Med Ethanobot Res. 1980; 2:262–4.
- Devan P, Bani S, Suri KA, Satti NK, Qazi GN. Immunomodulation exhibited by piperinic acid of Piper longum L. through suppression of proinflammatory cytokines. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007; 7(7):889–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2007.02.008. PMid:17499191
- Sunila ES, Kuttan G. Immunomodulatory and antitumor activity of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004; 90(2–3):339–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2003.10.016. PMid:1501 3199
- Selvendiran K, Sakthisekaran D. Chemopreventive effect of piperine on modulating lipid peroxidation and membrane-bound enzymes in benzo (a) pyreneinduced lung carcinogenesis, Biomed Pharmacother. 2004; 58(4):264–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha. 2003.08.027. PMid:15183854
- Senthil N, Manoharan S, Balakrishnan S, Ramachandran CR, Muralinaidu R, Rajalingam K. Modifying effects of Piper longum on cell surface abnormalities in 7, 12- dimethylbenz (A) Anthracene induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Int J Pharmacol. 2007; 3(3):290–4. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijp.2007.290.294
- Seon AL, Seong SH, Xiang HH, Ji SH, Gab J.O., Kyong SL, et al. Piperine from the fruits of Piper longum with inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase and antidepressant-like activity. Chem Pharm Bull. 2005; 53(7):832–5. https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.53.832. PMid:15997146
- Subramanian U, Poongavanam S, Vanisree AJ. Studies on the neuroprotective role of Piper longum in C6 glioma induced rats. Invest New Drugs. 2010; 28(5):615–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10637-009- 9301-1. PMid:19730792
- Agrawal AK, Rao CV, Sairam K, Joshi VK, Goel R.K. Effect of Piper longum, Zingiber officinale Linn, and Ferula species on gastric ulceration and secretion in rats. Indian J ExpBiol. 2000; p. 38.
- Khajuria A, Zutshi U, Bedi KL. Intestinal permeability characteristic of piperine, an active alkaloid from peppers and bioavailability enhancer. Indian J Exp Biol. 1998; 36(1):46–9.
- Christina AJ, Saraswathy GR, Robert Heison SJ, Kothai R, Chidambaranatha N, Nalini G. Inhibition of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis by Piper longum. Phytomed. 2006; 13(3):196–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2004.01.009. PMid:16428029
- Kholkute SD, Kekere MB, Munshi SR. Anti-fertility effects of the fruits of P. longum in female rats. Indian J ExpBiol. 1979; 17:289–90.
- Sarwar AH, Nirala RK, Arif M, Khillare B, Thakur SC. Spermicidal activity of the hexane extract of Piper longum: An in vitro study. Nat Prod Res. 2015; 29(12):1166–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.20 14.981812. PMid:25922109
- Lee SW, Rho MC, Park HR, Choi JH, Kang JY, Lee JW, et al. Inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase by alkamides isolated from the fruits of Piper longum. J Agri Food Chem. 2006; 54(26):9759–63. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf061402e. Mid:17177498
- Lee SW, Rho M, Nam JY, Lim EH, Kwon OE, Kim YH, et al. Guinensine, an Acyl-CoA: Cholesterol Acyltransferase Inhibitor, from the fruits of Piper longum. Planta Med. 2004; 70. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-827193. PMid:15254860
- Dhanukar SA, Zha A, Karandikar SM. Anti-allergic activity of Piper longum, Indian J Pharmacol. 1981; 13:122–4.
- Nath R, Mahajon B, Kumar MS, Sengupta A, Chattopadhyay A. Efficacy of Pippali (Fruits of Piper longum Linn.) in Grahaniroga: A prospective openlabel clinical trial. J Ayu Med Sci. 2017; 2:197–203. https://doi.org/10.5530/jams.2017.2.13
- Konstantin V, et al. Piper longum induces rapid depletion of the androgen receptor in the human prostate cancer cell. The Prostate. 2012; 73:23–30. https://doi.org/10.1002/pros.22535. PMid:22592999. PMCid:PMC3491117
- Lee W, Kim KY, Yu SN, Kim SH, Chun SS, Ji JH, et al. Pipernonaline from Piper longum Linn. induces ROS-mediated apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 430(1):406–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.11.030. PMid:23159637
- Kulshresta VK, Singh N, Shrivastava RK, Kohli RP. A study of central stimulant effect of Piper longum. Indian J Pharmacol. 1969; 1(2):8–10.
- Kulshresta VK, Singh N, Shrivastava RK, Kohli RP, Rastogi SK. A study of the central stimulant activity of Piper longum. J Res Indian Med. 1971; 6(1):17–19.
- Atal CK, Zutshi U, Rao PG. Scientific evidence on the role of ayurvedic herbals on the bioavailability of drugs. J Ethnopharmacol. 1981; 4(2):229–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(81)90037-4
Abstract Views: 281
PDF Views: 20