Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Evaluation and Assessment of the Acute Toxic Potential of Sansevieria cylindrica and Plumeria obtusa Plant Extracts in Wistar Albino Rats


Affiliations
1 Department of Pharmacology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Maharashtra - 411018, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Maharashtra - 411018, India
3 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Maharashtra - 411018, India
4 Department of Quality Assurance, Synapse Labs Pvt. Ltd., Pune, Maharashtra - 411014, India
5 Department of Clinical Research & Pharmacovigilance, Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., Pune, Maharashtra - 411028, India
 

Sansevieria cylindrica (SC) Bojer ex Hook. (Asparagaceae) and Plumeria obtusa (PO) L. (Apocynaceae) are indoor and outdoor ornamental plants respectively. These plants are traditionally used by the local healers during accidental injuries. However, their toxicological properties are very poorly explored over folkloric usage. Therefore, the present study evaluated the toxic potencies of SC leaves and PO seed Hydro-Alcoholic Extract (SCPOHAE) through acute oral dose (14-days) administration in female Wistar rats. Safety of the SCPOHAE was evaluated as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Acute Oral Toxicity study guidelines 423. The female Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=3). A single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg of body weight of individual extract and 1:1 blend was administered to each animal. The animals were
closely observed for clinical signs, neurobehavioral changes, morbidity, and mortality if any for the first half an hour and then every hour for the first four hours followed by observation every 24–hours for 14 days. Changes in food and water consumption, body weight were monitored daily during the study. On day 1 and day 15 blood samples were collected to evaluate changes in the hematology and biochemistry parameters. The urine samples were also collected for urine analysis parameters. Animals were sacrificed on day 15 and organ samples of liver and kidney were collected for histopathological findings. The SCPOHAE individually and also as 1:1 blend at the limit dose (2000 mg/kg, body weight) did not cause death and did not induce any remarkable and abnormal clinical signs, indicative of systemic toxicity, in rats during the treatment period of 14–days. The statistically non-significant small differences in the body weight were observed.

Conclusion: The oral administration of SCPOHAE did not cause any systemic toxic effects. In conclusion, the No-observed- Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) of these extracts in rats was found to be greater than 2000 mg/kg.


Keywords

Acute Toxicity, Plumeria obtusa, Safety Assessment, Sansevieria cylindrica
Font Size

User

Notifications
JOURNAL COVERS
  

  • Ekor M. The growing use of herbal medicines: Issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Front Pharmacol. 2014; 4:177. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2013.00177. PMid:24454289. PMCid:PMC3887317
  • Ibrahim MB, Sowemimo AA, Sofidiya MO, Badmos KB, Fageyinbo MS, Abdulkareem FB, et al. Sub-acute and chronic toxicity profiles of Markhamia tomentosa ethanolic leaf extract in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016; 193:68–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.07.036. PMid:27426507
  • Cock IE. The safe usage of herbal medicines: counterindications, crossreactivity and toxicity. Phcog Commn. 2015;5(1):2–38. https://doi.org/10.5530/pc.2015.1.2
  • Zhang J, Onakpoya IJ, Posadzki P, Eddouks M. The safety of herbal medicine: From prejudice to evidence. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015; 2015:316706. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/316706. PMid:25838831. PMCid:PMC4370194
  • Koduru S, Grierson DS, Afolayan AJ. Antimicrobial activity of Solanum aculeastrum. Pharm Biol. 2006; 44(4):283–6. https://doi.org/10.1080/13880200600714145
  • European Association for the Study of the Liver. Electronic address: easloffice@easloffice.eu; Clinical Practice Guideline Panel: Chair; Panel members; EASL Governing Board representative. EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: Drug-induced liver injury. J Hepatol. 2019; 70(6):1222–61.
  • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2019.02.014. PMid:30926241
  • Mohamed EA, Lim CP, Ebrika OS, Asmawi MZ, Sadikun A, Yam MF. Toxicity evaluation of a standardised 50 % ethanol extract of Orthosiphon stamineus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;133(2): 358–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.10.008. PMid:20937371
  • Parasuraman S. Toxicological screening. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2011; 2(2):74–9. https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-500X.81895. PMid:21772764 PMCid:PMC3127354
  • Takawira R, Nordal I. The genus of Sansevieria (family Dracaenaceae) in Zimbabwe. Acta. Hortic. 2003; 572:189–98. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.572.22
  • Ahamad T, Singh D, Khan MF. Phytochemical analysis, total phenolic content, antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of Sansevieria cylindrica leaves extract. J Nat Prod Resour. 2017; 3(2): 134–6. https://doi.org/10.21767/2472-0151.100026
  • Herbal and Natural Medicine. The most complete medicinal herbs database backed by science [Internet]. [cited 2021 May 22]. Available from: https://www.herbal-organic.com/en/herb/27992
  • Antunes AD, Da Silva BP, Parente JP, Valente AP. A new bioactive steroidal saponin from Sansevieria cylindrica. Phytother Res. 2003; 17(2):179–82. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1059. PMid:12601684
  • Herbal and Natural Medicine. The most complete medicinal herbs database backed by science. Available online at:https://www.herbal-organic.com/en/herb/20274 (Accessed on 13th Aug. 2021).
  • Narwariya P, Nabi J, Lalit P. Comprehensive overview of Plumeria obtusa. World J Pharmac Res. 2017; 6(4):664–76. https://doi.org/10.20959/wjpr20174-8212
  • Bihani T, Tandel P, Wadekar J. Plumeria obtusa L.: A systematic review of its traditional uses, morphology, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Phytomedicine Plus. 2021; 1(2): 100052. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phyplu.2021.100052
  • Dogra NK. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant studies of Plumeria obtusa L. leaves. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2016; 78(1):169–71. https://doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.180256. PMid:27168698 PMCid:PMC4852569
  • Shinde PR, Patil PS, Bairagi VA. Phytopharmacological review of plumeria species. Sch Acad J Pharm. 2014;3(2):217–27.
  • Said AA, Aboutabl EA, El Awdan SA, Raslan MA. Proximate analysis, phytochemical screening, and bioactivities evaluation of Cissus rotundifolia (Forssk.) Vahl. (Fam.Vitaceae) and Sansevieria cylindrica Bojer ex Hook. (Fam. Dracaenaceae) growing in Egypt. Egypt Pharmaceut J. 2015;14:180–6. https://doi.org/10.4103/1687-4315.172864
  • Ighodaro OM, Adeosun AM, Ojiko BF, Akorede AT, Fuyi-Williams O. Toxicity status and ant-ulcerative potential of Sansevieria trifasciata leaf extract in Wistar rats. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2017; 6(2):234–9. https://doi.org/10.5455/jice.20170421103553. PMid:28512605 PMCid:
  • PMC5429084
  • Khandelwal KR. Handbook of practical pharmacognosy: techniques and experiments. India: Nirali Prakashan; 2008.
  • Shaikh JR, Patil MK. Qualitative tests for preliminary phytochemical screening: An overview. Int J Chem Stud. 2020; 8(2):602–8. https://doi.org/10.22271/chemi.2020.v8.i2i.8834
  • Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals: Acute Oral Toxicity - Acute Toxic Class Method. Test No. 423, Adopted 22nd March 1996, and Revised Method Adopted 17th December 2001, OECD, Paris [Internet]. [cited 2021 Sep7]. Available from: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/iccvam/suppdocs/feddocs/oecd/oecd_gl423.pdf
  • Baravalle C, Salvetti NR, Mira GA, Pezzone N, Orteaga HH. Microscopic characterization of follicular structures in Leotrozole-induced Polycystic ovarian syndrome in the rat. Arch Med Res. 2006; 37(7):830–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2006.04.006. PMid:16971221
  • Ukwuani AN, Abubakar MG, Hassan SW, Agaie BM. Toxicological studies of hydromethanolic leaves extract of Grewia crenata. Int J Pharm Sci Drug Res. 2012; 4(4):245–9.
  • Ping KY, Darah I, Chen Y, Sreeramanan S, Sasidharan S. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of Euphorbia hirta L. methanol extract in rats. Biomed Res Int. 2013; https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/182064. PMid:24386634. PMCid:PMC3872372
  • Ezeja MI, Anaga AO, Asuzu IU. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity profile of methanol leaf extract of Gouania longipetala in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 151(3):1155–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.12.034. PMid:24384377
  • Bailey SA, Zidell RH, Perry RW. Relationships between organ weight and body/brain weight in the rat: what is the best analytical endpoint? Toxicol Pathol. 2004;32(4):448–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/01926230490465874. PMid:15204968
  • Mertens IL, Van Gaal LF. Overweight, obesity, and blood pressure: the effects of modest weight reduction. Obes Res.2000; 8(3):270–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2000.32. PMid:10832771
  • Trussell KC, Hinnen D, Gray P, Drake-Nisly SA, Bratcher KM, Ramsey H, et al. Case study: Weight loss leads to cost savings and improvement in metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Spectr. 2005; 18(2):77–9. https://doi.org/10.2337/diaspect.18.2.77
  • Krauss RM, Blanche PJ, Rawlings RS, Fernstrom HS, Williams PT. Separate effects of reduced carbohydrate intake and weight loss on atherogenic dyslipidemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 83(5):1025–31. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/83.5.1025. PMid:16685042
  • Song MK, Rosenthal MJ, Song AM, Uyemura K, Yang H, Ament ME, et al. Body weight reduction in rats by oral treatment with zinc plus cyclo-(His-Pro). Br J Pharmacol. 2009; 158(2):442–50. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00201.x. PMid:19422374. PMCid:PMC2757683
  • Chapman K, Sewell F, Allais L, Delongeas JL, Donald E, Festag M, et al. A global pharmaceutical company initiative: An evidence-based approach to define the upper limit of body weight loss in short term toxicity studies. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013; 67(1):27–38. https://doi.
  • org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2013.04.003. PMid:23602904
  • Mukinda JT, Syce JA. Acute and chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of Artemisia afra in rodents. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007; 112(1): 138-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.02.011 PMid:17367969
  • Yakubu M, Akanji M, Oladiji A. Hematological evaluation in male albino rats following chronic administration of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem. Pharmacogn Mag.2007; 3(9):34–8.
  • Suganthy N, Muniasamy S, Archunan G. Safety assessment of methanolic extract of Terminalia chebula fruit, Terminalia arjuna bark and its bioactive constituent 7-methyl gallic acid: In vitro and in vivo studies. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2018;92:347–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.12.019. PMid:29288719
  • Al-Attar AM, Alrobai AA, Almalki DA. Protective effect of olive and juniper leaves extracts on nephrotoxicity induced by thioacetamide in male mice. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2017; 24(1):15–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.08.013. PMid:28053566 PMCid:PMC5198929
  • Wolf G, Ziyadeh FN. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. Nephron Physiol.2007; 106(2):26–31. https://doi.org/10.1159/000101797. PMid:17570945
  • Zhang Q, Mao Z, Zhang Q, Qiu J, Jia Z, Qin L. Acute and sub-chronic toxicological studies of the iridoid glycosides extract of Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) Kudo in rats. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2018; 92:315–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.12.018. PMid:29287802

Abstract Views: 24

PDF Views: 7




  • Evaluation and Assessment of the Acute Toxic Potential of Sansevieria cylindrica and Plumeria obtusa Plant Extracts in Wistar Albino Rats

Abstract Views: 24  |  PDF Views: 7

Authors

Sunil Shewale
Department of Pharmacology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Maharashtra - 411018, India
Vaishali Undale
Department of Pharmacology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Maharashtra - 411018, India
Vrushali Bhalchim
Department of Pharmacology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Maharashtra - 411018, India
Shivani Desai
Department of Pharmacology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Maharashtra - 411018, India
Maruti Shelar
Department of Pharmacognosy, Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Maharashtra - 411018, India
Shubham Padole
Department of Pharmacology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Maharashtra - 411018, India
Sohan Chitlange
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Maharashtra - 411018, India
Vikas Wawale
Department of Quality Assurance, Synapse Labs Pvt. Ltd., Pune, Maharashtra - 411014, India
Sameer Parekh
Department of Clinical Research & Pharmacovigilance, Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., Pune, Maharashtra - 411028, India
Pramod Pujari
Department of Clinical Research & Pharmacovigilance, Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., Pune, Maharashtra - 411028, India

Abstract


Sansevieria cylindrica (SC) Bojer ex Hook. (Asparagaceae) and Plumeria obtusa (PO) L. (Apocynaceae) are indoor and outdoor ornamental plants respectively. These plants are traditionally used by the local healers during accidental injuries. However, their toxicological properties are very poorly explored over folkloric usage. Therefore, the present study evaluated the toxic potencies of SC leaves and PO seed Hydro-Alcoholic Extract (SCPOHAE) through acute oral dose (14-days) administration in female Wistar rats. Safety of the SCPOHAE was evaluated as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Acute Oral Toxicity study guidelines 423. The female Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=3). A single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg of body weight of individual extract and 1:1 blend was administered to each animal. The animals were
closely observed for clinical signs, neurobehavioral changes, morbidity, and mortality if any for the first half an hour and then every hour for the first four hours followed by observation every 24–hours for 14 days. Changes in food and water consumption, body weight were monitored daily during the study. On day 1 and day 15 blood samples were collected to evaluate changes in the hematology and biochemistry parameters. The urine samples were also collected for urine analysis parameters. Animals were sacrificed on day 15 and organ samples of liver and kidney were collected for histopathological findings. The SCPOHAE individually and also as 1:1 blend at the limit dose (2000 mg/kg, body weight) did not cause death and did not induce any remarkable and abnormal clinical signs, indicative of systemic toxicity, in rats during the treatment period of 14–days. The statistically non-significant small differences in the body weight were observed.

Conclusion: The oral administration of SCPOHAE did not cause any systemic toxic effects. In conclusion, the No-observed- Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) of these extracts in rats was found to be greater than 2000 mg/kg.


Keywords


Acute Toxicity, Plumeria obtusa, Safety Assessment, Sansevieria cylindrica

References





DOI: https://doi.org/10.18311/jnr%2F2022%2F28768