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Discovery of Immunomodulators from Plant Kingdom Targeting IL-6 for the Effective Management Therapy of SARS-CoV-2


Affiliations
1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Ooty, The Nilgiris – 643001, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Ooty, The Nilgiris – 643001, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Biotechnology, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Ooty, The Nilgiris – 643001, Tamil Nadu, India
 

The present study was conducted because of the recent scenario of this pandemic coronavirus outbreak worldwide. Currently, this disease cannot be treated through specific vaccines and therapeutic medicines. While many vaccines are being investigated, it would take some time for these to be accessible to the masses. Eventual evidence indicates that many COVID-19 patients may die from an irregular release of cytokines called as Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS) due to the excessive reaction of their immune systems. In worsening patients with COVID-19, CRS played a significant role, from pneumonia via ARDS to cumulative systemic inflammation and eventually to a failing of the multi-system organ. In COVID-19 individuals, a large number of cytokines, including IL-6, IL-1, IL-2, IL-10, TNF- α, and IFN- α, participate in the ‘cytokine storm,’ but IL-6, whose higher serum levels are associated with respiratory failure, ARDS, and adverse clinical outcomes, tends to be a critical factor. In China, the COVID-19 mortality indicator has been tested by a multi-centre retrospective analysis in 150 COVID-19 patients. The study analysed that 82 cases are resolved from COVID-19 and 68 cases are dead due to enhancement of IL-6 levels in the serum. In this research, the secondary plant metabolites from Indian traditional medicine are identified through a computational technique and the selected seedling metabolite is sealed to block the IL-6 receptor.

Keywords

Covid-19, IL-6, Cytokine Release Syndrome, Secondary Metabolites
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  • Discovery of Immunomodulators from Plant Kingdom Targeting IL-6 for the Effective Management Therapy of SARS-CoV-2

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Authors

Akey Krishna Swaroop
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Ooty, The Nilgiris – 643001, Tamil Nadu, India
Palathoti Nagarjuna
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Ooty, The Nilgiris – 643001, Tamil Nadu, India
P. Naresh
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Ooty, The Nilgiris – 643001, Tamil Nadu, India
P. Shyam Sundar
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Ooty, The Nilgiris – 643001, Tamil Nadu, India
S. Jubie
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Ooty, The Nilgiris – 643001, Tamil Nadu, India
Jawahar Natarajan
Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Ooty, The Nilgiris – 643001, Tamil Nadu, India
P. Vasanth
Department of Biotechnology, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Ooty, The Nilgiris – 643001, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract


The present study was conducted because of the recent scenario of this pandemic coronavirus outbreak worldwide. Currently, this disease cannot be treated through specific vaccines and therapeutic medicines. While many vaccines are being investigated, it would take some time for these to be accessible to the masses. Eventual evidence indicates that many COVID-19 patients may die from an irregular release of cytokines called as Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS) due to the excessive reaction of their immune systems. In worsening patients with COVID-19, CRS played a significant role, from pneumonia via ARDS to cumulative systemic inflammation and eventually to a failing of the multi-system organ. In COVID-19 individuals, a large number of cytokines, including IL-6, IL-1, IL-2, IL-10, TNF- α, and IFN- α, participate in the ‘cytokine storm,’ but IL-6, whose higher serum levels are associated with respiratory failure, ARDS, and adverse clinical outcomes, tends to be a critical factor. In China, the COVID-19 mortality indicator has been tested by a multi-centre retrospective analysis in 150 COVID-19 patients. The study analysed that 82 cases are resolved from COVID-19 and 68 cases are dead due to enhancement of IL-6 levels in the serum. In this research, the secondary plant metabolites from Indian traditional medicine are identified through a computational technique and the selected seedling metabolite is sealed to block the IL-6 receptor.

Keywords


Covid-19, IL-6, Cytokine Release Syndrome, Secondary Metabolites

References





DOI: https://doi.org/10.18311/jnr%2F2022%2F28798