Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Work/Family Conflict and Career Advancement : Demographic Differences as Moderators among IT Employees


Affiliations
1 School of Management, Presidency University, Bangalore - 560 064, Karnataka, India

   Subscribe/Renew Journal


India’s information technology (IT) is the world’s largest sourcing destination, providing direct and indirect employment for more than 10 million people. It is seen that the IT sector in India always looks for career advancement. This study analyzed the work/family conflict of Indian IT employees and its influence on career advancement with demographic variables: age, gender, and marital status as moderators. The data were gathered from 392 respondents employed in Indian IT organizations. With the help of SPSS 21.0, the data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, correlation, and hierarchical regression, and the Hayes methodology and interaction software explained the moderators. It was observed that career advancement and work/family conflict had a favorable association which may vary in a particular state. It was also revealed that age acted as a moderator of all demographic differences selected in the study. Therefore, the article suggested that work/family conflict may positively or negatively influence career advancement.

Keywords

Career Advancement, Control Variables, Moderators, IT (Information Technology), Work/Family Conflict.

JEL Classification Codes : J10, M12, M15, M51

Paper Submission Date : June 30, 2021 ; Paper sent back for Revision : April 21, 2022 ; Paper Acceptance Date : May 30, 2022 ; Paper Published Online : September 15, 2022

User
Subscription Login to verify subscription
Notifications
Font Size

  • Abele, A. E., & Spurk, D. (2009). How do objective and subjective career success interrelate over time? Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82(4), 803–824. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317909X470924
  • Agarwal, S., Qian, W., Reeb, D. M., & Sing, T. F. (2016). Playing the boys game: Golf buddies and board diversity. American Economic Review, 106(5), 272–276. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.p20161033
  • Aiken, L. S., West, S. G., & Reno, R. R. (1991). Multiple regressions: Testing and interpreting interactions. Sage. https://lib.ugent.be/catalog/rug01:000241456
  • Allen, T. D. (2001). Family-supportive work environments: The role of organizational perceptions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58(3), 414–435. https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.2000.1774
  • Anafarta, N., & Kuruüzüm, A. (2012). Demographic predictors of work-family conflict for men and women: Turkish case. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(13), 145–158. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v7n13p145
  • Arokiasamy, L., Ismail, M., Ahmad, A., & Othman, J. (2011). Predictors of academics' career advancement at Malaysian private universities. Journal of European Industrial Training, 35(6), 589–605. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090591111150112
  • Ballout, H. I. (2008). Work-family conflict and career success: The effects of domain-specific determinants. Journal of Management Development, 27(5), 437–466. https://doi.org/10.1108/02621710810871781
  • Brough, P., Timms, C., O'Driscoll, M. P., Kalliath, T., Siu, O.-L., Sit, C., & Lo, D. (2014). Work-life balance: A longitudinal evaluation of a new measure across Australia and New Zealand workers. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(19), 2724–2744. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2014.899262
  • Buddhapriya, S. (2013). Diversity management practices in select firms in India: A critical analysis. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 48(4), 597–610. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23509817
  • Budhwar, P., & Varma, A. (2010). Guest editors' introduction: Emerging patterns of HRM in the new Indian economic environment. Human Resource Management, 49(3), 345–351. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20364
  • Calisir, F., Gumussoy, C. A., & Iskin, I. (2011). Factors affecting intention to quit among IT professionals in Turkey. Personnel Review, 40(4), 514–533. https://doi.org/10.1108/00483481111133363
  • Cano, C., Fernández-Sanz, L., & Misra, S. (2013). Featuring CIO: Roles, skills and soft skills. International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals (IJHCITP), 4(1), 22–33. https://doi.org/10.4018/jhcitp.2013010103
  • Caplan, R. D., Cobb, S., French Jr., J. R., Harrison, R. V., & Pinneau Jr., S. R. (1975). Job demands and worker health. Government Printing Press.
  • Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, K. M., & Williams, L. J. (2000). Construction and initial validation of a multidimensional measure of work-family conflict. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 56(2), 249–276. https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1999.1713
  • Chauhan, J., Mishra, G., & Bhakri, S. (2022). Perceived career success and career advancement of women: Challenges in the Indian IT industry. International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals (IJHCITP), 13(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJHCITP.293231
  • Chin, L. G. (2016). Unequal egalitarianism: Does organizational structure create different perceptions of male versus female leadership abilities? Gender in Management, 31(1), 19 – 42. https://doi.org/10.1108/GM-10-2014-0093
  • Clarke, M. (2013). The organizational career: Not dead but in need of redefinition. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(4), 684–703. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2012.697475
  • Dai, L., & Song, F. (2016). Subjective career success: A literature review and prospect. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 4(3), 238–242. https://doi.org/10.4236/jhrss.2016.43026
  • Donnelly, R. (2015). Tensions and challenges in the management of diversity and inclusion in IT services multinationals in India. Human Resource Management, 54(2), 199–215. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21654
  • Duxbury, L. E., Higgins, C. A., & Mills, S. (1992). After-hours telecommuting and work-family conflict: A comparative analysis. Information Systems Research, 3(2), 173–190. https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.3.2.173
  • Ghislieri, C., Gatti, P., Molino, M., & Cortese, C. G. (2017). Work-family conflict and enrichment in nurses: Between job demands, perceived organisational support and work-family backlash. Journal of Nursing Management, 25(1), 65–75. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12442
  • Gordon, J. R., & Whelan, K. S. (1998). Successful professional women at midlife: How organizations can more effectively understand and respond to the challenges. Academy of Management Perspectives, 12(1), 8–24. https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.1998.254975
  • Greenglass, E. R., Burke, R. J., & Konarski, R. (1998). Components of burnout, resources, and gender-related differences. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(12), 1088–1106. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1998.tb01669.x
  • Grzywacz, J. G., Almeida, D. M., & McDonald, D. A. (2002). Work - family spillover and daily reports of work and family stress in the adult labor force. Family Relations, 51(1), 28–36. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2002.00028.x
  • Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Press.
  • Hodgson, J. (2002). Beyond work-family balance: Advancing gender equality and workplace performance. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(5), 293–299. https://doi.org/10.1108/lodj.2002.23.5.293.1
  • Hughes, D. E., Le Bon, J., & Rapp, A. (2013). Gaining and leveraging customer-based competitive intelligence: The pivotal role of social capital and salesperson adaptive selling skills. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41, 91–110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-012-0311-8
  • Jex, S. M., Wang, M., & Zarubin, A. (2002). Aging and occupational health. In, K.S. Shultz & G. A. Adams (eds.), Aging and work in the 21st century (pp. 199 – 223). Lawrence Erlbaum Associate Publishers.
  • Kala, K., Akbar Jan, N., Subramani, A. K., & Banureka, R. (2017). Upshot of occupational stress on work life balance of employees working in information technology organizations in Chennai. Prabandhan: Indian Journal of Management, 10(7), 50–59. https://doi.org/10.17010/pijom/2017/v10i7/116494
  • Karlapudi, T. K. (2022). An empirical study on impact of work/family conflict on occupational future of IT employees: Environmental support as a moderator. International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals (IJHCITP), 13(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJHCITP.296690
  • Krys, K., Świdrak, J., Kwiatkowska, A., Kosakowska-Berezecka, N., & Vedøy, G. (2018). The role of organizational and spouse support in solving work-life conflict among migrants. International Journal of Stress Management, 25(S1), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1037/str0000070
  • Kumari, K. T. (2021). Effect of career determinants on employee engagement in the Indian IT sector: Gender as a moderator. International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professional (IJHCITP), 12(4), 18–30. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJHCITP.2021100102
  • Kumari, T., & Vangapandu, R. D. (2021). Impact of work-family conflict on career development of knowledge workers in Indian IT sector: Examining moderating effect of age. International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals (IJHCITP), 12(3), 37–53. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJHCITP.2021070103
  • Kurup, A. J., Pandey, S., & Charfare, M. (2020). Mediating effects of factors influencing career satisfaction of women academicians in higher education. Prabandhan : Indian Journal of Management, 13(4), 7–24. https://doi.org/10.17010/pijom/2020/v13i4/151823
  • Landau, J., & Arthur, M. B. (1992). The relationship of marital status, spouse's career status, and gender to salary level. Sex Roles, 27, 665 – 681. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02651096
  • Lu, C.-Q., Lu, J.-J., Du, D.-Y., & Brough, P. (2016). Crossover effects of work-family conflict among Chinese couples. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31(1), 235–250. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-09-2012-0283
  • Majumder, M. (2016). Technology as work and work as technology. International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals (IJHCITP), 7(1), 20–34. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJHCITP.2016010102
  • Martins, L. L., Eddleston, K. A., & Veiga, J. F. (2002). Moderators of the relationship between work-family conflict and career satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 45(2), 399–409. https://doi.org/10.5465/3069354
  • Matthews, R. A., Bulger, C. A., & Barnes-Farrell, J. L. (2010). Work social supports, role stressors, and work-family conflict: The moderating effect of age. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(1), 78–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2009.06.011
  • McGinn, K. (2015). Having a working mother is good for you (HBS press release). https://www.hbs.edu/news/releases/Pages/having-working-mother.aspx
  • Morgan, W. B., & King, E. B. (2012). Mothers' Psychological contracts: Does supervisor breach explain intention to leave the organization? Human Resource Management, 51(5), 629–649. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21492
  • Okkonen, J., Vuori, V., & Helander, N. (2018). Enablers and Restraints of Knowledge Work-Implications by certain professions? Cogent Business & Management, 5(1), Article 1504408. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2018.1504408
  • Omar, S., & Tajudeen, F. P. (2020). The influence of career adaptability and career commitment to minimize intention to leave among ICT professionals. International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals (IJHCITP), 11(2), 23–38. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJHCITP.2020040102
  • Pandey, S., & Sharma, V. (2016). Understanding work-related stress, job conditions, work culture and workaholism phenomenon as predictors of HR crisis: An empirical study of the Indian IT sector. International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals (IJHCITP), 7(2), 68 – 80. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJHCITP.2016040105
  • Pattanaik, F., & Nayak, N. C. (2011). Employment intensity of service sector in India: Trend and determinants. In, the 2010 International Conference on Business and Economics Research. IACSIT Press.
  • Patwardhan, V., Mayya, S., & Joshi, H. (2018). Women managers moving on: What might influence their career advancement and satisfaction in the Indian hotel industry? Prabandhan: Indian Journal of Management, 11(12), 7–21. https://doi.org/10.17010/pijom/2018/v11i12/139986
  • Pham, Q. T., Pham-Nguyen, A.-V., Misra, S., & Damaševičius, R. (2020). Increasing innovative working behavior of information technology employees in Vietnam by knowledge management approach. Computers, 9(3), 61. https://doi.org/10.3390/computers9030061
  • Powell, G. N., & Butterfield, D. A. (2013). Sex, gender, and aspirations to top management: Who's opting out? Who opting in? Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 82(1), 30–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2012.11.003
  • Powell, G. N., & Mainiero, L. A. (1992). Cross-currents in the river of time: Conceptualizing the complexities of women's careers. Journal of Management, 18(2), 215–237. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639201800202
  • Purushothaman, S., & Kaviya, E. (2020). A study on employee engagement in a IT company. Journal of Management (JOM), 7(3), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.34218/JOM.7.3.2020.001
  • Rajadhyaksha, U., Korabik, K., & Aycan, Z. (2015). Gender, gender-role ideology, and the work-family interface: A cross-cultural analysis. In, M. Mills (ed.), Gender and the work-family experience. (pp. 99 – 117). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08891-4_6
  • Rathore, S., & Ahuja, V. (2015). A study of role stress among the IT professionals in India: Examining the impact of demographic factors. International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals (IJHCITP), 6(2), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJHCITP.2015040101
  • Ravindran, B., & Baral, R. (2014). Factors affecting the work attitudes of Indian re-entry women in the IT sector. Vikalpa, 39(2), 31– 42. https://doi.org/10.1177/0256090920140205
  • Ruppanner, L., & Huffman, M. L. (2014). Blurred boundaries: Gender and work-family interference in cross-national context. Work and Occupations, 41(2), 210–236. https://doi.org/10.1177/0730888413500679
  • Rustagi, P. (2010). Employment trends for women in India. ILO, New Delhi.
  • Saquifa, B. S., Tsouroufli, M., & Branine, M. (2015). Gender, careers, and inequalities in medicine and medical education: International perspectives. Emerald Group Publishing.
  • Semwal, M., & Dhyani, A. (2017). Impact of employees training and career development on their engagement: A study using OCM and UWES measurement scales. NICE Journal of Business, 12(1), 85–101.
  • Singe, S. M., & Mensch, J. (2021). Work-life balance in athletic training; A perspective of the athletic trainer's spouse. International Journal of Athletic Therapy and Training, 26(4), 216–224. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijatt.2019-0089
  • Spector, P. E. (1985). Measurement of human service staff satisfaction: Development of the job satisfaction survey. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13(6), 693–713. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00929796
  • Stephens, G. K., & Sommer, S. M. (1993). Work-family conflict, job attitudes, and work social support: Investigations of measurement and moderation. In, Annual Conference for Academy of Management, Atlanta, Georgia.
  • Sudhindra, S., Vasanth Kumar, G., & Valarmathi, B. (2020). Work-life balance among women Anganwadi workers in Bengaluru. Prabandhan: Indian Journal of Management, 13(3), 20–34. https://doi.org/10.17010/pijom/2020/v13i3/151177
  • Suhasini, T., & Kalpana, K. (2018). A study on factors affecting employee engagement in Indian IT industry. International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 118(24), 1–13.
  • Sweet, S., Sarkisian, N., Matz-Costa, C., & Pitt-Catsouphes, M. (2016). Are women less career-centric than men? Structure, culture, and identity investments. Community, Work & Family, 19(4), 481–500. https://doi.org/10.1080/13668803.2015.1078287
  • Thriveni Kumari, K. (2020). Effect of professional attributes on professional-life conflict: Gender as a moderator in the Indian IT industry. Prabandhan: Indian Journal of Management, 13(1), 33–44. https://doi.org/10.17010/pijom/2020/v13i1/149946
  • Treadway, D. C., Ferris, G. R., Hochwarter, W., Perrewé, P., Witt, L. A., & Goodman, J. M. (2005). The role of age in the perceptions of politics - job performance relationship : A three-study constructive replication. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(5), 872–881. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.5.872
  • Van Steenbergen, E. F., Kluwer, E. S., & Karney, B. R. (2014). Work-family enrichment, work-family conflict, and marital satisfaction : A dyadic analysis. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(2), 182–194. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036011
  • Verma, A., & Singh., P. (2020). Elucidating the effect of learning ability on employees' potential : A study of IT sector in India. Prabandhan: Indian Journal of Management, 13(2), 7–22. https://doi.org/10.17010/pijom/2020/v13i2/150561
  • Watts, L. L., Frame, M. C., Moffett, R. C., Van Hein, J. L., & Hein, M. (2015). The relationship between gender, perceived career barriers, and occupational aspirations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 45(1), 10–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12271
  • Yusuf, R. M., & Hasnidar, H. (2020). Work-family conflict and career development on performance of married women employees: Case of Bank of Indonesia. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science, 9(1), 151–162. https://doi.org/10.20525/ijrbs.v9i1.601

Abstract Views: 18

PDF Views: 0




  • Work/Family Conflict and Career Advancement : Demographic Differences as Moderators among IT Employees

Abstract Views: 18  |  PDF Views: 0

Authors

K. Thriveni Kumari
School of Management, Presidency University, Bangalore - 560 064, Karnataka, India

Abstract


India’s information technology (IT) is the world’s largest sourcing destination, providing direct and indirect employment for more than 10 million people. It is seen that the IT sector in India always looks for career advancement. This study analyzed the work/family conflict of Indian IT employees and its influence on career advancement with demographic variables: age, gender, and marital status as moderators. The data were gathered from 392 respondents employed in Indian IT organizations. With the help of SPSS 21.0, the data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, correlation, and hierarchical regression, and the Hayes methodology and interaction software explained the moderators. It was observed that career advancement and work/family conflict had a favorable association which may vary in a particular state. It was also revealed that age acted as a moderator of all demographic differences selected in the study. Therefore, the article suggested that work/family conflict may positively or negatively influence career advancement.

Keywords


Career Advancement, Control Variables, Moderators, IT (Information Technology), Work/Family Conflict.

JEL Classification Codes : J10, M12, M15, M51

Paper Submission Date : June 30, 2021 ; Paper sent back for Revision : April 21, 2022 ; Paper Acceptance Date : May 30, 2022 ; Paper Published Online : September 15, 2022


References





DOI: https://doi.org/10.17010/pijom%2F2022%2Fv15i9%2F172193