Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Open Access Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Restricted Access Subscription Access

Tribals in Agriculture


Affiliations
1 Dairy Extension Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal (Haryana), India
     

   Subscribe/Renew Journal


The progress of the country is related with tribal development as the tribal population in the country is not small. Tribal economy is mainly hunting, collecting and fishing or a combination of hunting, collecting with shifting cultivation. The tribal agriculture is primitive and backward resulting in low productivity. Tribal agriculture is characterized by small land holdings, improper land utilization, poor farming techniques, over grazing of pastures, low capital investment and low production inputs. Tribal areas are in the nature’s lap and agriculture has unique potential to absorb these people and creating opportunities for employment. It was found that tribal farmers were aware of some improved farming practices but did not have detail knowledge and training on method of application of fertilizer, organic and chemical fertilizer doses and method of application, method of transplanting, plant protection measures, methods of harvesting and methods of inter-culturing. The indigenous knowledge of farmers is considered as important sources of information about the local farming systems, experiences, institutions, culture etc. Tribal women constitute half of the work force among tribals in India. Tribal women are discriminated, though they make enormous contribution to the agriculture and allied sectors. Due to absence of employment opportunities in agriculture sector; young people belonging to tribal communities are finding themselves at cross-road of life. There is strong need to sensitize and train the tribal folks through adequate extension, policy and financial support for holistic development of tribals in our country.

Keywords

Agriculture, Country, Farmers, Tribal.
Subscription Login to verify subscription
User
Notifications
Font Size


  • Anburaja, V.and Nandagopalan, V. (2012). Agricultural activities of the Malayali tribal for subsistence and economic needs in the mid elevation forest of Pachamalai hills, Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. Internat. J. Agric. Res., Innovation & Technol., 2 (1) : 32-36.
  • Behera, K. K., Mandal, P. and Mahapatra, D. (2006). Green leaves for diarrhoeal diseases used by the tribals of Kenojhar and Mayurbhanj district of Orissa, India. J. Ethnobot. Leaflets, 10: 305-328.
  • Bhagat, R. B. (2013). Conditions of SC/ST households: A story of unequal improvement. Economic & Political Weekly, 48 (41) : 62–66.
  • Brouwers, J.H.A.M.(1993). Rural people’s response to soil fertility decline, The adja case (Benin). Wageningen Agricultural University Papers, 93-94pp.
  • Corbridge, S.(1988). The ideology of tribal economy and society: Politics in the Jharkhand 1950–1980. Modern Asian Studies, 22 (1) : 1–4.
  • Das, A. B.and Sahoo, D. (2012). Farmers’ educational level and agriculture productivity: a study of tribals of KBK districts of Odisha. Internat. J. Educ. Econ. & Develop.,3(4) : 363-374.
  • Dash, D. (2018). Generating livelihood for tribal youth through agripreneurship development: Prospects, retrospect, constraints and strategies. J. Pharmacognosy & Phytochem., 7 (5) : 3412-3416.
  • Gangwar, A. K. and Ramakrishnan, D. S. (1989). Cultivation and use of lesser-known plants of food value by tribals in north-east India. Agric., Ecosyst.& Environ.,25(2-3) : 253-267.
  • Gupta, A. K. (2000). Shifting cultivation and conservation of biological diversity in Tripura, northeast India. Human Ecology, 28 (4) : 605–629.
  • Hanumantha, P. R.and Grover, D. (1979). Employment planning for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Econ. & Politi. Weekly, 14 (24) : 1015–1022.
  • Kalyani, K. S.,Krishnamurthy, V., Rao, C. C. and Kumari, N. A. (2011). Role performance of tribal women in agriculture-a study in agency area of east Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh. J. Dairying Foods & Home Sci., 30(3) : 221-224.
  • Kumar, M., Gupta, J., Radhakrishnan, A. and Singh, M. (2015). Pig-based production system contributing towards the sustainable livelihood of tribes of Jharkhand, Internat. J. Farm Sci., 5(4) : 290–298.
  • Kumari, S.(2008). A study on indigenous technical knowledge of tribal farmers in agriulture of Jharkhand state. Sri Venkateswara Agricultural College, Tirupati Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University Hyderabad (A.P.) India.
  • Kumbhkar, K.(2010). The tribal states of India. Walk through India.
  • Mandavkar, P.M., Sawant, P.A. and Mahadik, R.P. (2011). Training needs of tribals in relation to agricultural occupation. Labour, 34: 34 - 40.
  • Marchang, R.(2018). Land, agriculture and livelihood of scheduled tribes in North-East India. J. Land & Rural Stud., 6 (1) : 67-84.
  • Mef and Gbpihed (2009). Governance for sustaining Himalayan ecosystem guidelines and best practices.Ministry of Environment and Forests and G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Delhi, India.
  • Narayanasamy, P.(2006). Traditional knowledge of tribals in crop protection. Indian J. Traditi. Knowl., 5(1) : 64-70.
  • Natarajan, M.and Govind, S. (2006). Indigenous agricultural practices among tribal women. Indian J. Tradit. Knowl., 5(1) : 118-121.
  • Patidar, J., Kumhar, B., Mhaske, S. and Jat, S. (2018). Importance of sustainable agriculture in tribal community of India. Internat. J. Bio-resource & Stress Mgmt.,9 (2) : 253-256.
  • Peale, S.E. (1874). The Nagas and neighbouring tribes. J. Anthropological Institute of Great Britain & Ireland, 3: 476– 481.
  • Purkayastha, N. (2016). Concept of Indian tribes: An Overview, Internat. J. Adv. Res. Mgmt. & Soc. Sci., 5 (2) : 1-9.
  • Ravishankar, T.and Selvam, V. (1996).Contributions of tribal communities in the conservation of traditional cultivars. In: Using diversity: Enhancing and maintaining genetic resources on-farm, International Development Research Centre, New Delhi, India. pp. 78-86.
  • Reddy, B.S.N. (1991). Shifting cultivators and rural development in Garo hill: Some reflection. In: R. K. Samanta (Ed.), Rural development in north-east India: Perspectives, issues and experiences (pp. 216–223). Uppal Publishing House, Delhi, India.
  • Roy, R.D., Xavier, B. and William, M. S. (2012). Study on shifting cultivation and the sociocultural integrity of indigenous peoples. Economic and social council. New York: United Nations. Retrieved from http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/ UNDOC/GEN/ N12/241/85/PDF/N1224185.pdf?Open Element.
  • Seavoy, R.E. (1973). The shading cycle in shifting cultivation. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 63(4): 522–528.
  • Sethi, R.M.(1984). Changing patterns of female labour in agriculture: The case of Punjab.Social Action, 34(4): 354–367.
  • Shandilya, T.S.,Suryawanshi, D.K., Khan, M.A. and Gupta, A.K. (2016). Constraints faced by the tribal youth in participation of different on-farm and off-farm activities. Plant Archives, 16 (1) : 233-236.
  • Sharland (1991). Awareness of farm women on environmental degradation due to use of some selected modern agricultural technologies. M.S. (Ag. Ext. Ed.) Thesis, Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
  • Sharma, S. (2015).Indigenous use of medicinal plants for respiratory problems in Punjab . M.Sc. Thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhian, Punjab (India).
  • Sharma, S.and Kaur, C. (2015). In depth adoption of organic farming practices by tribal women. Internat. J. Sci. & Res., 4 (1) : 884-888.
  • Shimray, U.A.(2004). Women’s work in Naga society: household work, workforce participation and division of labour. Econ. & Political Weekly, 39 (17) : 1698–1711.
  • Thakur, A.,Naqvi, S.M.A., Aske, D.K. and Sainkhediya, J. (2014). Study of some ethno medicinal plants used by tribals of Alirajpur, Madhya Pradesh, India. Res. J. Agric. & Forest. Sci. 2(4) : 9-12.
  • Thangchungnunga (1987). The agricultural profile in Mizoram. In V. S. Mahajan (Ed.), Emerging pattern of north-eastern economy (pp. 268–273). Deep and Deep Publication, Delhi, India.
  • Vyas, N.N. and Mann, R. S. (1980). Indian tribes in transition, Rawat Publications, Jaipur-Delhi, India, 20pp.

Abstract Views: 2998

PDF Views: 0




  • Tribals in Agriculture

Abstract Views: 2998  |  PDF Views: 0

Authors

Kalyan Mandi
Dairy Extension Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal (Haryana), India
Ritu Chakravarty
Dairy Extension Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal (Haryana), India

Abstract


The progress of the country is related with tribal development as the tribal population in the country is not small. Tribal economy is mainly hunting, collecting and fishing or a combination of hunting, collecting with shifting cultivation. The tribal agriculture is primitive and backward resulting in low productivity. Tribal agriculture is characterized by small land holdings, improper land utilization, poor farming techniques, over grazing of pastures, low capital investment and low production inputs. Tribal areas are in the nature’s lap and agriculture has unique potential to absorb these people and creating opportunities for employment. It was found that tribal farmers were aware of some improved farming practices but did not have detail knowledge and training on method of application of fertilizer, organic and chemical fertilizer doses and method of application, method of transplanting, plant protection measures, methods of harvesting and methods of inter-culturing. The indigenous knowledge of farmers is considered as important sources of information about the local farming systems, experiences, institutions, culture etc. Tribal women constitute half of the work force among tribals in India. Tribal women are discriminated, though they make enormous contribution to the agriculture and allied sectors. Due to absence of employment opportunities in agriculture sector; young people belonging to tribal communities are finding themselves at cross-road of life. There is strong need to sensitize and train the tribal folks through adequate extension, policy and financial support for holistic development of tribals in our country.

Keywords


Agriculture, Country, Farmers, Tribal.

References