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Lithium-ion batteries are efficient energy storage devices in electric vehicles (EVs). Graphite is used in these batteries as an anode material because of its high stability and good conductivity. However, the need for stability, safety and reversibility is increasing rapidly in commercial EVs. In this study, a Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>/TiO<sub>2</sub>/gra-phene hybrid nanocomposite coated with Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> has been developed using the microwave-assisted hydro-thermal process with graphite as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries. This combination of nano-materials increases the stability of the anode, electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance. The Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>/graphene/TiO<sub>2</sub> nanocomposite results in a rever-sible capacity of 920 mAh g–1 after analysing it in 160 cycles at a current density of 100 mAh g–1. The nano-composite provides excellent long-term cycle stability of 650 mAh g–1 after 160 cycles. This shows an ultra-high rate capability of 475 mAh g–1 at 150°C. The gra-phene and Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>/graphene/TiO<sub>2</sub>hybrid nanocomposite mixture coated with Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> exhibits good nonlinear cumulative effects, stability, high reversibility, and in-creased ultrahigh rate capability.


Electric Vehicles, Graphite Anode, Hybrid Nanocomposite, Lithium-ion Batteries, Microwave-assisted Hydrothermal Process
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