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Introduction: Birth defect, congenital malformation, and congenital anomaly are synonymous term use to describe structural, behavioral, functional, and metabolic disorders present at birth. Causes of congenital anomalies are often divided into genetic and environmental factor. For 50-60% of congenital anomalies the etiology is unknown. In the present study, we only look for visible gross anomalies thereby the exact definition of congenital anomaly may not be fulfilled.

Materials and method: Study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, for the period of 1 year, i.e., from 1st August 2011 to 1st August 2012. 120 numbers of stillbirth human foetuses were collected from the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, RIMS, Imphal with a due permission from ethical committee. The specimens were preserved in 10% formalin. After 2 weeks specimens were observed carefully for any visible anomalies.

Results: Out of 120 foetuses; 15 foetuses, i.e., 12.5% were found to have congenital anomalies. The commonest anomaly is craniofacial anomaly (6.666%) in the form of anencephaly and cleft lip and palate. Next to craniofacial anomaly is vertebral arch defect in the form of spina bifida (2.5%). Other anomalies are abdominal wall defect and limbs defects, each contributing 1.666% of the total anomalies in the present study.

Conclusion: The incidence of congenital anomalies in the present study is 12.5%. The commonest anomaly encountered is in the form of craniofacial anomalies. This high of incidence congenital anomalies encountered in this study may be due to the fact that the study was conducted only in stillbirth human foetuses. Further research is recommended in order to pinpoint the causes of these of anomalies with the use of modern sophisticated tools.


Anomalies, Stillbirth, Craniofacial, Fetuses.
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