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Introduction: Sex determination of human skeletal remains is considered as an initial step in identification. Sex determination of fragmented skeletal remains has immensely helped in identification of an individual. Foramen Magnum is an integral component of studies on skull in particular interest for anthropology, anatomy, forensic medicine, and other medical fields. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mastoid process and foramen magnum measurements as a tool for sex determination in unidentified skeleton. Methods: Seventy seven completely undamaged skulls of known sex in book record were used for the study. Adult crania (age ranges between 20-70 years) of known sex were obtained from various sources. Adult skulls of mature individuals, without destruction of mastoid process in the region of the craniometrical points, were chosen for the study. Skulls that showed evidence of injury/fracture or deformity were excluded from this study. A measurement of the mastoid and foramen magnum was done as per Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, using vernier/sliding calipers (0.01mm) and craniophore. Analysis was done using IBM – Statistical Package for Social sciences (SPSS) version 21. The means between the male and female samples were compared for significance using the Student’s t – test. Results: Out of the 77 skulls studied, 45 were male and 32 were females. In male, mastoid length mean is 2.82, whereas in female it is 2.51. In male the mastoid width mean is 1.57 and in female is 1.38. Statistics revealed high significance in mastoid length and mastoid width (p value: 0.01 and 0.012 respectively). Mastoid index did not show much significance. Conclusion: Our study revealed statistically significant parameters (p<0.05) in mastoid length and mastoid breath. Reports on the use of mastoid process and foramen magnum as a tool for sex determination in unidentified human skeleton has been reported in different populations.


Sex Determination Mastoid Length, Sexual Dimorphism, South Indian Population.
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