The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

Fullscreen Fullscreen Off

While Article 22 of the TRIPS Agreement grants a common minimum standard of GI protection to all goods, by virtue of Article 23 of TRIPS, ‘wines and spirits’ are given a higher level or additional protection, which is a complimentary protection in addition to the Article 22 common protection. At the national front, India has the highest registrations of GIs in agricultural and handicrafts classes of goods. Section 22 (2) and (3) of Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act, 1999 enable India to grant additional protection to ‘certain goods’ - the expression ‘certain goods’ is not defined in the Act. Section 22 (2) grants the Central Government, the authority to provide additional protection to certain class of goods by publishing a notification in the Official Gazette to that effect. When Article 23 of TRIPS Agreements qualifies only wines and spirits for higher level protection; the Indian GI statute does not restrict the additional protection to any specific class/es of goods. This paper critically examines the ‘working of section 22 (2) of Indian GI Act.’


Geographical Indication, Additional Protection, TRIPS Agreement, Section 22 (2) Notification, Higher Level Protection.
Font Size