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Determination of Antimicrobial Effect and DNA Interaction of Two Endemic Rhaponticoides Species (R. mykalea and R. hierroi)
Purpose: This study was carried out to determine the antimicrobial effect and DNA interaction of two endemic Rhaponticoides species (R. mykalea and R. hierroi) which are distributed in Turkey. Ethanol and methanol extracts of leaf and stem parts of R. mykalea and R. hierroi were used in this study. Material and Methods: The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined by agar well method and evaluated on Bacillus cereus NRRL B-3711, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumaniae ATCC 13883, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Candida krusei ATCC 6258 and Candida tropicalis Y-12968. For comparison, ampicillin, chloramphenicol (antibacterial) and ketoconazole (antifungal) were used as standard antibiotics. The diameter of the inhibition zones, formed after incubation, is measured in mm. The DNA interaction of plants extracts were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis method. The effect of extracts on DNA was measured for 24 and 48 hours. Furthermore, the nucleotide linkage of the substances was investigated by restriction enzyme digestion. Results: R. hierroi methanol extract formed against to E. coli ATCC 35218, 10.67 ± 0.47 mm; against to S. aureus ATCC 25923, 12 ± 0.82 mm and against to K. pneumaniae ATCC 13883, 13.33 ± 0.47 mm inhibition zone diameter. R. hierroi ethanol extract formed against to S. aureus ATCC 25923, 12.67 ± 0.94 mm; against to B. subtilis ATCC 6633, 10.33 ± 0.47 mm inhibition zone diameter. R. mykalea methanol extract formed against to P. vulgaris RSKK 96029, 13 ± 1.41 mm; against to K. pneumaniae ATCC 13883, 12.33 ± 0.47 mm; against to B. cereus NRRL B – 3711, 11.67 ± 0.47 mm and against to P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, 12 ± 0 mm inhibition zone diameter. R. mykalea ethanol extract formed against to E. hirae ATCC 9790, 11.67 ± 0.47 mm; against to K. Pneumaniae ATCC 13883, 11.33 ± 0.47 mm and against to P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, 12 ± 0 mm inhibition zone diameter. Likewise, the extracts were observed to cause DNA breaks and bound to both A/A and G/G nucleotides by restriction enzyme digestion experiments. Conclusion: In this study, it has been determined that the extracts obtained from R. hierroi and R. mykalea plants have antimicrobial activity on at least one or more microorganisms. The R. mykalea methanol extract was found to be more effective than the others. The highest inhibition zone diameter was determined against R. hierroi methanol extract K. pneumoniae ATCC 13883 strain (13,33 ± 0,47 mm). It has been determined that the extracts had a concentration and time-dependent effect on the DNA and this effect and is in the form of DNA cutting activity. The strongest effect was observed at high concentration, while at other concentrations, form III DNA was observed which formed a double chain fracture outcome.
Antimicrobial Effect, DNA Interacton, Endemic, Herbal Plant, Rhaponticoides, Turkey.
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