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Mortality Differentials in Gender, Income Level and Cause of Death


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1 Department of Actuarial Science, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Lagos, India
     

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The reduction in mortality within a nation is a major objective of the government and international organizations. To achieve this goal, indicators of high mortality among disadvantaged people, communities and regions need to be examined and the relationship between these mortality differentials needs to be carried out to accurately identify how inequalities operate at different levels. The objective of this research is to analyse the mortality differentials in gender, causes of death and income levels to identify high-risk cases where health programmes can be channelled or intensified. In the course of this study, visits were made to hospitals, friends and family members for personal observations, investigation and data collection to have comprehensive knowledge of the subject matter. The data were obtained from publications, and surveys of health or health-related organizations. Male mortality and female life expectancy are higher at all ages in most countries across the globe. In Nigeria, most deaths (in rank) arise from lower respiratory infections, neonatal disorders, HIV/AIDS and malaria, while the leading causes of death (in rank) in Africa as a whole are lower respiratory tract infections, HIV/AIDS, diarrhoea diseases and ischemic heart diseases. In the world (as a whole), ischemic heart disease and stroke are the leading causes of death. Most deaths in the lower-income group are due to causes that may be treatable through access to basic health services, while most deaths in the higher-income group are associated with environmental factors and/or natural disasters. To minimize the differences in health outcomes and maximize the health gains, responses that are aimed at mitigating exposure to risk factors and/or adequate access to health services should be employed.

Keywords

Causes of Death, Differentials, Gender, Income Levels, Mortality
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  • Mortality Differentials in Gender, Income Level and Cause of Death

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Authors

Omotayo Johncally Abere
Department of Actuarial Science, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Lagos, India

Abstract


The reduction in mortality within a nation is a major objective of the government and international organizations. To achieve this goal, indicators of high mortality among disadvantaged people, communities and regions need to be examined and the relationship between these mortality differentials needs to be carried out to accurately identify how inequalities operate at different levels. The objective of this research is to analyse the mortality differentials in gender, causes of death and income levels to identify high-risk cases where health programmes can be channelled or intensified. In the course of this study, visits were made to hospitals, friends and family members for personal observations, investigation and data collection to have comprehensive knowledge of the subject matter. The data were obtained from publications, and surveys of health or health-related organizations. Male mortality and female life expectancy are higher at all ages in most countries across the globe. In Nigeria, most deaths (in rank) arise from lower respiratory infections, neonatal disorders, HIV/AIDS and malaria, while the leading causes of death (in rank) in Africa as a whole are lower respiratory tract infections, HIV/AIDS, diarrhoea diseases and ischemic heart diseases. In the world (as a whole), ischemic heart disease and stroke are the leading causes of death. Most deaths in the lower-income group are due to causes that may be treatable through access to basic health services, while most deaths in the higher-income group are associated with environmental factors and/or natural disasters. To minimize the differences in health outcomes and maximize the health gains, responses that are aimed at mitigating exposure to risk factors and/or adequate access to health services should be employed.

Keywords


Causes of Death, Differentials, Gender, Income Levels, Mortality



DOI: https://doi.org/10.15410/aijm%2F2023%2Fv12i1%2F173019