Open Access Subscription Access
Response to Covid-19 Disease in Ghana: A Review of the Herbs
The majority of people living in developing countries rely on alternative medicine for many aspects of their healthcare needs. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, a lot of alternative treatments have been adopted in a bid to prevent contracting and sometimes purported to cure the disease. However, the adopted medicinal plants are mainly arbitrary and have not been captured nor reviewed in the light of available knowledge. In this review, we examined the herbs, fruits, vegetables and other alternative therapies that have been employed by many Ghanaians with the aim of COVID-19 disease prevention. The majority of these herbs are medicinal plants known to have antiviral activities, while others boost the immune system.
COVID-19, Herbs, Preventive Therapy.
- Borkotoky S, Banerjee M. A computational prediction of SARS-CoV-2 structural protein inhibitors from Azadirachta indica (Neem). J BiomolStructDyn. 2020; 38(18):1–17.
- Srivastava N, Baxi P, Ratho RK, Saxena SK. Global trends in epidemiology of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nature. 2020:9–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-4814-7_2
- Goswami DK, Mukesh K, Ghosh SK, Das A. Natural product compounds in Alpinia officinarum and ginger are potent SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease inhibitors. ChemRxiv. 2020:1–17. https://doi.org/10.26434/chemrxiv.12071997
- WHO. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) dashboard data. https://covid19.who.int/?gclid=CjwKCAiA tK79BRAIEiwA4OskBg2ag1bz5muX6FTCWdsC DR5KsBYtbtzQ9fbFzfmNVE8XAyd62W3FlBoCHsQAvD_ BwE.
- Sibiri H, Prah D, Zankawah SM. Containing the impact of COVID-19: Review of Ghana's response approach. Health Policy and Technology. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlpt.2020.10.015
- Kaur SP, Gupta V. COVID-19 Vaccine: A compre hensive status report. Virus Research. 2020; 288:1–12 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198114
- Arshad MS, Khan U, Sadiq A, Khalid W, Hussain M, Yasmeen A, et al. Coronavirus disease (COVID‐19) and immunity booster green foods: A mini review. Food. 2020; 8(8):3971–6. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1719
- Teibo J, Olorunfemi F, Ajayi J, Adewolu M. Frugal chemoprophylaxis against COVID-19: Possible preventive benefits for the populace. Int J Adv Res Biol Sci. 2020; 7(6):44–64.
- Aboubakr HA, Nauertz A, Luong NT, Agrawal S, El-Sohaimy SAA, Youssef MM, et al. In vitro antiviral activity of clove and ginger aqueous extracts against Feline Calicivirus, a Surrogate for Human Norovirus. J Food Prot. 2016; 79(6)):1001–12 https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-15-593
- Chang JS, Wang KC, Yeh CF, Shieh DE, Chiang LC. Fresh ginger (Zingiber officinale) has anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 145(1):146–51 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.043
- Burt S. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods-a review. Int J Food Microbiol. 2004; 94(3):223–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.03.022
- Bellavite P, DonzelliA . Hesperidin and SARS-CoV-2: New light on the healthy function of citrus fruits. Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland) 2020; 9(8):742–59. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080742
- Mohanapriya M, Ramaswamy L, Rajendran R. Health and medicinal properties of lemon (Citrus limonum). J Ayu Her Med. 2013; 3(1):1095–100.
- Nagdeve M. Lime: Benefits, Uses, And Side Effects [Internet]. 2020. [cited 2020 Jul 10]. Available from: https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/fruit/health-benefits-of-lime.html
- Available from: https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/Neem-traditionalherbal-practices-can-help-fight-coronavirus-Traditional-Medicine-Practitioners-898801.
- Subramanian S. Some compounds from neem leaves extract exhibit binding affinity as high as-14.3 kcal/mol against COVID-19 Main Protease (Mpro): A molecular docking study [Internet]. Research Square. Available from: https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-25649/v1
- Imran I, Altaf I, Ashraf M, Javeeda A, Munirc N, Bashir R. In vitro evaluation of antiviral activity of leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica, Moringa oleifera, and Morus alba against the foot and mouth disease virus on BHK-21 cell line. Science Asia. 2016; 42:392–6 https://doi.org/10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2016.42.392
- Bekoe EO, Kitcher C, Agyei GA, Frimpong-Manso S. Pharmacognostic characteristics of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. as a means of monitoring quality. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy. 2020; 7(3):55–63.
- Baatartsogt T, Bui VN, Trinh DQ, Yamaguchi E, Gronsang D, Thampaisarn R, et al. High antiviral effects of hibiscus tea extract on the H5 subtypes of low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. J Vet Med Sci. 2016; 78(9):1405–11 https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.16-0124
- Takeda Y, Okuyama Y, Nakano H, Yaoita Y, Machida K, Ogawa H, et al. Antiviral Activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Tea extract against human influenza a virus rely largely on acidic pH but partially on a lowpH- independent mechanism. Food Environ Virol. 2020; 12(1):9–19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12560-019-09408-x
- Abel C, Busia K. An exploratory ethnobotanical study of the practice of herbal medicine by the Akan peoples of Ghana. Altern Med Rev. 2005:112–22.
- Saague PWK, Moukette BM, Njimou JR, Biapa PCN, Tankeu FN, Moor VJA, et al. Phenolic compounds from water-ethanol extracts of tetrapleuratetraptera produced in cameroon, as potential protectors against in vivo CCl4-induced liver injuries. Sci World J. 2019: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5236851
- Adadi P, Kanwugu ON. Potential application of Tetrapleura tetraptera and Hibiscus sabdari a (Malvaceae) in designing highly flavoured and bioactive pito with functional properties. Beverages. 2020; 6(22):1–32. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6 020022
- Harazem R, Abd El Rahman SA, El-Kenawy A. Evaluation of antiviral activity of Allium Cepa and Allium Sativum extracts against newcastle disease virus Alexandria. J Vet Sci. 2019; 61 (1):108–18. https://doi.org/10.5455/ajvs.29663
- Thuy B, My T, Hai N, Hieu LT, Hoa TT, Thi Phuong Loan H, et al. Investigation into SARS-CoV-2 resistance of compounds in garlic essential oil. American Chemical Society Omega. 2020; 5(14):8312–20. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c00772
- Abdullah TH, Kandil O, Elkadi A, Carter J. Garlic revisited: Therapeutic for the major diseases of our times? J Natl Med Assoc. 1988; 80(4):439-45.
- Darkwa S, Darkwa AA. The use of indigenous green leafy vegetables in the preparation of Ghanaian dishes. J Food Processing Techno. 2013; 4(12):1–7.
- Lissiman E, Bhasale AL, M C. Garlic for the common cold (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2014; 2014(11):1–17.
- Gupta A, Gautam MK, RK S, Kumar MV, Rao CV, Goel RK, et al. Immunomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. extract on cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in mice. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010; 48:1157–60.
- Bekoe EO, Jibira Y, Agyei GA. Physicochemical, phytochemical, heavy metal and microbiological analysis of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves. 2020; 12(6):1541–6. https://doi.org/10.5530/pj.2020.12.211
- Asiedu-Gyekye IJ, Frimpong-Manso S, Awortwe C, Antwi DA, Nyarko Ak. Micro-and macroelemental composition and safety evaluation of the nutraceutical Moringa oleifera leaves. J Toxicol. 2014; 2014:1–13. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/786979
- Rowe CA, Nantz MP, Bukowski JF, Percival SS. Specific formulation of Camellia sinensis prevents cold and flu symptoms and enhances gamma, delta T cell function: a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007; 26(5):445–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2007.10719634
- Mhatre S, Srivastava T, Naik S, Patravale V. Antiviral activity of green tea and black tea polyphenols in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19: A review. 2020; 85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153286
- Ghosh R, Chakraborty A, Biswas A, Chowdhuri S. Evaluation of green tea polyphenols as novel corona virus (SARS CoV-2) main protease (Mpro) inhibitors –An in silico docking and molecular dynamics simulation study. J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. 2020:1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1779818
- Sweeney B, Vora M, Ulbricht C, Basch E. Evidencebased systematic review of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) by natural standard research collaboration. J Herb Pharmacother. 2005; 5(1):79–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/J157v05n01_09
- He W, Han H, Wang W, Gao B. Anti-influenza virus effect of aqueous extracts from dandelion. Virol J. 2011; 8(538):1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743- 422X-8-538
- Kwenin WKJ, Wolli M, Dzomeku BM. Assessing the nutritional value of some African indigenous green leafy vegetables in Ghana. J Anim Plant Sci. 2011; 10(2):1300–5.
- Bekoe EO, Akwo-Kretchy I, Sarkodie JA, Okraku A, Sasu C, Adjei D, et al. Ethnomedicinal survey of plants used for the management of hypertension sold in the Makola Market, Accra, Ghana. European J Med Plants. 2017; 19(3):1–9. https://doi.org/10.9734/EJMP/2017/32342
- Ameyaw Y, Aboagye FA, Appiah AA, Blagogee HR. Quality and harvesting specifications of some medicinal plant parts set up by some herbalists in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Ethnobotleafl. 2005; 2005(1).
- Singh R, Shushni MAM, Belkheir A. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Mentha piperita L. Arab J Chem. 2015; 8(3):322–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. arabjc.2011.01.019
- Selles SMA, Kouidri M, Belhamiti BT, Amrane A. Chemical composition, in-vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Syzygium aromaticum essential oil. J Food Meas Charact. 2020; 14(4):2352–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-020-00482-5
- Batiha GE, Alkazmi LM, Wasef LG, Beshbishy AM, Nadwa EH, Rashwan EK. Syzygiumaromaticum L. (Myrtaceae): Traditional Uses, Bioactive Chemical Constituents, Pharmacological and Toxicological Activities. Biomolecules. 2020; 10(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10020202
- Subenthiran S, Choon TC, Cheong KC, Thayan R, Teck MB, Muniandy PK, et al. Carica papaya leaves juice significantly accelerates the rate of increase in platelet count among patients with dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013(616737):616–737. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/616737
- Yamaguchi E, Aravind G, Debjit B, Duraivel S, Harish G. Traditional and medicinal uses of Carica papaya. J Med Plants Stud. 2013; 1(1):7–15.
- McLaughlin JL. Paw paw and cancer: Annonaceous acetogenins from discovery to commercial products. J Nat Prod. 2008; 71(7):1311–21. https://doi.org/10.1021/np800191t
- Nti CA, Hagan J, Bagina F, Seglah M. Knowledge of nutrition and health benefits and frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables among Ghanaian homemakers. Afr J Food Sci. 2011; 5(6):333–9.
- Awe S, Eniola KIT, Kayode-Ishola TM. Proximate and mineral composition of locally produced pawpaw and banana wine. Am J Res Commun. 2013; 1(12):390-7.
- Mair CE, Liu R, Atanasov AG, Schmidtke M, Dirsch VM, Rollinger JM. Antiviral and anti-proliferative in vitro activities of piperamides from black pepper. Planta Medica. 2016; 82(S 01):S1–381. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0036-1596830
- Ordaz-Trinidad N, Dorantes-Álvarez L, Sala-Benito J, Barrón-Romero BL, Salas-Benito M, De Nova- Ocampo M. Citotoxicidad Y Actividad Antiviral De Extractos De Chiles (Capsicum Spp). Polibotánica. 2018; 46:103–19. https://doi.org/10.18387/polibotanica.46.18
- Hafiz TA, Mubaraki MA, Dkhil MA, Al-Quraishy S. Antiviral activities of capsicum Annuummethanolic extract against herpes simplex virus 1 and 2. Pak J Zool. 2017; 49(1):267–72. https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/2017.49.1.251.255
- Koffi AC, Adjogoua EV, Yao K, Kouassi KC, Yayé YG K, offi-Nevry R, et al. Cytotoxic and antiviral activity of methanolic, ethanolic and acetate extracts of six varieties of capsicum. Int J CurrMicrobiolAppl Sci. 2015; 4 (10):76–88.
- Bonaccio M, Di Castelnuovo A, Costanzo S, Ruggiero E, De Curtis A, Persichillo M, et al. Chili pepper consumption and mortality in Italian Adults. J Am CollCardiol. 2019; 74(25):3139–49.
- Blay-Brody A. Pepper soup. Gastronomica. 2009; 9(4):62–5. https://doi.org/10.1525/gfc.2009.9.4.62
- Li Y, Liu Y, Ma A, Bao Y, Wang M, Sun Z. In vitro antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of Mentha piperita L. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2017; 26(6):1675–83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-017-0217-9
- Schuhmacher A, Reichling J, Schnitzler P. Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro. Phytomedicine. 2003; 10(6):504–10. https://doi.org/10.1078/094471103322331467
- Lelešius R, Karpovaitė A, Mickienė R, Drevinskas T, Tiso N, Ragažinskienė O, et al. In vitro antiviral activity of fifteen plant extracts against avian infectious bronchitis virus. BMC Vet Res. 2019; 15(178):1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019- 1925-6
- Ayisi NK, Nyadedzor C. Comparative in vitro effects of AZT and extracts of Ocimum gratissimum, Ficus polita, Clausena anisata, Alchornea cordifolia, and Elaeophorbiadrupifera against HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. Antiviral Res. 2003; 58(1):25–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-3542(02)00166-3
- Kalita J, Khan ML. Commercial potentialities of essential oil of Ocimum members growing in North East India. Int J Pharm Life Sci. 2013; 4(4):2559–67.
- Pandey S. Phytochemical constituents, pharma cological and traditional uses of Ocimum gratissimum L. in tropics. Indo Am J Pharm Res. 2017; 4(11):4234–42.
- Nweze E, Eze E. Justification for the use of Ocimum gratissimum L in herbal medicine and its interaction with disc antibiotics. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-9-37
- Mahapatra SK, Chakraborty SP, Somenath RO. Immunomodulatory role of Ocimum gratissimum and ascorbic acid against nicotineinduced murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2011:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/734319
- Oladunmoye MK. Immunostimulatory activity of ethanolic leaf extract from Ocimum gratissimum in albino rat orogastrically dosed with Escherichia coli (NCIB 86). J Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006; 1:389–94. https://doi.org/10.3923/jpt.2006.389.394
- Simonson W. Vitamin C and coronavirus. Geriatr Nursing. 2020; 41(3):331–2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2020.05.002
- Read SA, Obeid S, Ahlenstiel C, Ahlenstiel G. The role of zinc in antiviral immunity. Adv Nutr. 2019; 10(4):696–710. https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nm z013
- Kumar A, Kubota Y, Chernov M, Kasuya H. Potential role of zinc supplementation in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19. Med Hypotheses. 2020; 144(109848):1–3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109848
- Tsai CL, Wu PC. Possible beneficial role of throat gargling in the coronavirus disease pandemic. Public Health. 2020; 185:45–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. puhe.2020.05.055
- Satomura K, Kitamura T, Kawamura T, Shimbo T, Watanabe M, Kamei MP. Prevention of upper respiratory tract infections by gargling: A randomized trial. Am J Prev Med. 2005; 29(4):302–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2005.06.013
- Stookeya JD, Allu PKR, Chabas D, Pearced D, Lange F. Hypotheses about sub-optimal hydration in the weeks before coronavirus disease (COVID- 19) as a risk factor for dying from COVID-19. Med Hypotheses. 2020; 144:110–237 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110237
- Bender T, Bálint G, Prohászka Z, P. G, Tefner IK. Evidence-based hydro-and balneotherapy in Hungary-a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Biometeorol. 2014; 58(3):311–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-013-0667-6
- Loeb L. Beating the Flu: Orthodox and commercial responses to influenza in Britain. Soc Hist Med. 2005; 18(2):203–24. https://doi.org/10.1093/sochis/hki030
Abstract Views: 221
PDF Views: 192