The hunt for novel anticancer drugs with minimal side effects continues. This study strengthens the claim by providing biochemical evidences of anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata bark extracts on lung carcinoma cells (A549 and H460). Bark extracts of Bauhinia variegata were prepared by different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus and tested for their antioxidant potential by DPPH assay. The lung cancer cell lines were treated with Bauhinia variegata bark extracts and viability of cells was measured by MTT assay; metastatic ability was determined through Scratch assay and effect on DNA integrity was shown by gel electrophoresis. The Petroleum Ether Bark Extract (PEBE) inhibits proliferation (A549, IC50 = 1.5 mg/ml) at 48 h treatment. DNA damage was observed in A549 cells by agarose gel electrophoresis. The Chloroform Bark Extract (CBE) inhibited proliferation of H460 (IC50 = 1 mg/ml) with DNA damage after 24 h treatment. Soft agar assay indicated decreased ability to form colonies and scratch test showed impaired migration of A549 and H460 to PEBE and CBE treatment respectively. Apoptosis was detected using fluorescent dye staining in A549 and H460 cells. Caspase 3 activity was increased significantly in A549 and H460 cells. PEBE and CBE decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential gradient (ΔΨm) of A549 and H460 cells respectively. This study categorically proves the cytotoxic activity of Bauhinia variegata bark extracts on A549 and H460 cells.
Anticancer Effect, Caspase, DNA Damage, Metastasis, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines