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Assessment of Type 2 Diabetes Risk in General Population using Bitter Taste Sensitivity Status to Phenylthiocarbamide - A Pilot Study


Affiliations
1 Department of Microbiology, Swami Shraddhanand College, University of Delhi, New Delhi - 110 036, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi, New Delhi - 110 016, India
     

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Eating habits and genetic factors contribute to diseases such as obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Variation in bitter taste perception has been linked with intake of alcohol, coffee, vegetable, and smoking habit as well as with adiposity, a risk factor for diabetes development. Therefore, it was hypothesized that bitter taste perception could lead to differences in eating/drinking behavior among individuals, which may lead T2DM development later in the life. Bitter taste sensitivity was assessed using paper strips having supra-threshold concentration of Phenyl Thio Carbamide (PTC). Lifestyle variables were assessed using standard anthropometry measurements and a questionnaire. T2DM risk was assessed using a point based system developed by Finnish Diabetes Association (FINDRISC score). SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. A total of 498 volunteers from New Delhi region participated in the present study, where the mean age of PTC tasters was 24 ± 12 years and for non-tasters was 29 ± 16 years. PTC taster status was significantly correlated with age (p ≤ 0.01), weight (p ≤ 0.05), BMI (p ≤ 0.05) and waste circumference (p ≤ 0.05). A positive correlation was observed for type of chocolate liking (r = 0.113, p ≤ 0.001) and for T2DM risk (p ≤ 0.012) with PTC non-taster status. Logistic regression analysis showed that PTC non-taster individuals are at a higher risk (OR: 1.558, 95% CI: 1.037-2.342, p=0.033) for developing T2DM in the next ten years. Present results have shown that bitter taste sensitivity modulates liking towards certain food and non-tasters for PTC have a higher BMI, weight and are at a higher risk for T2DM development. PTC tasting could be employed as a method for assessing risk of diabetes in healthy individuals. We recommend large scale screening among young adults to promote awareness and early prevention measures.


Keywords

FINDRISC, Type 2 Diabetes Risk, Prevention, PTC, Food Preference.
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  • Assessment of Type 2 Diabetes Risk in General Population using Bitter Taste Sensitivity Status to Phenylthiocarbamide - A Pilot Study

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Authors

Bhupender Kumar
Department of Microbiology, Swami Shraddhanand College, University of Delhi, New Delhi - 110 036, India
Savita Bansal
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi, New Delhi - 110 016, India
Disha Kapila
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi, New Delhi - 110 016, India
Rishu Thakur
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi, New Delhi - 110 016, India
Surbhi Bhati
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi, New Delhi - 110 016, India
Nikita Grover
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi, New Delhi - 110 016, India
Geeta Trilok-Kumar
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi, New Delhi - 110 016, India
Archana Burman
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi, New Delhi - 110 016, India

Abstract


Eating habits and genetic factors contribute to diseases such as obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Variation in bitter taste perception has been linked with intake of alcohol, coffee, vegetable, and smoking habit as well as with adiposity, a risk factor for diabetes development. Therefore, it was hypothesized that bitter taste perception could lead to differences in eating/drinking behavior among individuals, which may lead T2DM development later in the life. Bitter taste sensitivity was assessed using paper strips having supra-threshold concentration of Phenyl Thio Carbamide (PTC). Lifestyle variables were assessed using standard anthropometry measurements and a questionnaire. T2DM risk was assessed using a point based system developed by Finnish Diabetes Association (FINDRISC score). SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. A total of 498 volunteers from New Delhi region participated in the present study, where the mean age of PTC tasters was 24 ± 12 years and for non-tasters was 29 ± 16 years. PTC taster status was significantly correlated with age (p ≤ 0.01), weight (p ≤ 0.05), BMI (p ≤ 0.05) and waste circumference (p ≤ 0.05). A positive correlation was observed for type of chocolate liking (r = 0.113, p ≤ 0.001) and for T2DM risk (p ≤ 0.012) with PTC non-taster status. Logistic regression analysis showed that PTC non-taster individuals are at a higher risk (OR: 1.558, 95% CI: 1.037-2.342, p=0.033) for developing T2DM in the next ten years. Present results have shown that bitter taste sensitivity modulates liking towards certain food and non-tasters for PTC have a higher BMI, weight and are at a higher risk for T2DM development. PTC tasting could be employed as a method for assessing risk of diabetes in healthy individuals. We recommend large scale screening among young adults to promote awareness and early prevention measures.


Keywords


FINDRISC, Type 2 Diabetes Risk, Prevention, PTC, Food Preference.

References